Americans often use the word "bathroom" to mean "a room containing a toilet", but "bathroom" in British English and its parallels in other languages (badeværelse, Badezimmer, cuarto de baño, salle de bains. etc.) means a room for bathing in. That is to say, it must contain a bath -- it may or may not contain a toilet too. It's therefore safest to ask directly: "Where is the toilet?"
Actually, most Americans are accustomed to "bathrooms" always containing a toilet. That is necessary in a "full bath," which is what they desire in their homes. A partial or half bath is either missing a bathtub or shower. Or both. Even a half bath always contains a toilet and sink for washing up. This is the way real estate in the US is designed and sold.
So, yes. North Americans -- Canadians, too -- expect to find a toilet in a "bathroom." But it's always best to find out whether other cultures translate the same way before you have immediate need of a toilet.