Hey! Can it possibly be "They need to have apples?" instead of "They need apples?" Literally is it They need apples from them? (Knowing the literal translation I think gives me a better grasp on these pronouns, it was very helpful that they included that in the "Tips" section).
If jesrad's "thank you" was addressed to just TheSOB88, then "agat" is correct, if the "thank you" was directed at both TheSOB88 and Lancet, then "agaibh" is correct.
"Go raibh maith agat" is "thank you" where "you" is just one person.
"Go raibh maith agaibh" is "thank you" where "you" is more than one person. (variously expressed as y'all, ye, youse guys in different dialects of English).
If it was just "teastaíonn úlla" how would you tell the difference between "he wants apples" and "they want apples" and "I want apples" and "Pól wants apples".
You have to indicate who wants the apples. If that is a pronoun (I, you, he, etc), then the preposition "ó" and the pronoun are combined ("ó" + "siad" combine to give "uathu"). If it's not a pronoun, then "ó" remains separate - "teastaíonn úll ó mo dheartháir" - "my brother wants an apple".
Teastaíonn roinnt úll uaim- "I want some apples".
(roinnt requires the following noun to be in the genitive, hence úll, the genitive plural).
I don't know what you mean by "platform", but to say "I like X" in Irish, you say Is math liom X, and the conditional form of the copula is gives you
Ba mhaith liom roinnt úll - "I would like some apples".
I'm sorry. I meant to say what is the polite form as in I would like some apples. Another question just occurred to me. How would I say I would like apples if, for example, they were peeled. In other words, way above my level, the conditional with the subjunctive were in English? Does Irish have the subjunctive mood? If so how? I mean, is it used when the sentence is contrary to fact? In this case, the apples aren't peeled. Is it also used when something is desired but not assured, as in I wish you would come tomorrow? In English, I know that's the conditional but in some languages like Spanish it takes the subjunctive. I'll refer to many of your posts again as I get more advanced. Thank you in advance.
Irish does have a subjuncctive mood (the Modh foshuiteach). It is not directly equivalent to the subjunctive in English. The most common example is go raibh maith agat.
You can check the subjunctive of a verb on the Grammar tab at teanglann.
You can read some detailed discussions of the subjunctive in the comments on Dá n-imreoinn bheadh sé sásta, "If they were not interested in it, they would not buy the car", "If I was happy, I would sing", Mura dtabharfá an t-airgead dom ní bheinn ábalta dul and "If I had the money I would buy it".
I have seen people say that teastaíonn is used for need and ó is used for want, by some convention. I wrote "they want apples" and it is marked wrong. However the next question "Bricfeasta teastaíonn uainn" I put "They need breakfast" which was marked correct but then suggested another solution as "They want breakfast". What gives?
You've misunderstood what you've seen. The choice is between teastaigh ó and bí ó - the ó is required in both constructions to indicate who wants/needs something.
bí ó is analogous to bí ag for "have". teastaigh doesn't mean "need" or "want", it means "be wanted" or "be needed" - whether you translate it as "want" or "need" depends on circumstances - after all, you are "in want of" something that you "need". In some dialects, there might be more of a distinction.