https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr

95 Core Concepts in Portuguese

What are the most basic, elementary, core concepts that virtually all languages express? Many linguists have put a great deal of effort into answering this question, and several short word lists have come out of it. The most famous are probably the Swadesh lists, based mostly on intuition and refined over time. Later lists like the Leipzig-Jakarta have used more stringent methods to determine which vocabulary items are most resistant to borrowing and change over time.

What I've done here is taken five such word lists (Swadesh 100, Ranked Swadesh 40, Swadesh-Yakhontov, Leipzig-Jakarta, and Woodward) and kept only the items that occur in at least two of the lists. Here is the Portuguese version. Enjoy!

Abbreviations:
m = masculine gender ("o")
f = feminine gender ("a")

Nouns:
1) name = nome (m)
2) water = água (f)
3) blood = sangue (m)
4) fire = fogo (m)
5) stone/rock = pedra (f), rocha (f)
6) dog = cachorro (m), cão (m)
7) fish = peixe (m)
8) louse/flea = piolho (m), pulga (f)
9) hand/arm = mão (f), braço (m)
10) eye = olho (m)
11) ear = orelha (f), ouvido (m)
12) nose = nariz (m)
13) tongue = língua (f)
14) tooth = dente (m)
15) bone = osso (m)
16) horn = chifre (m), corno (m)
17) tail = rabo (m), cauda (f)
18) egg = ovo (m)
19) leaf = folha (f)
20) night/evening = noite (f)
21) star = estrela (f)
22) sun = sol (m)
23) moon = lua (f)
24) earth/soil = terra (f), solo (m)
25) salt = sal (m)
26) mountain = montanha (f)
27) tree = árvore (f)
28) rain = chuva (f)
29) wind = vento (m)
30) bird = pássaro (m)
31) flesh/meat = carne (f), vianda (f)
32) liver = fígado (m)
33) skin/hide = pele (f)
34) knee = joelho (m)
35) breast/chest = peito (m)
36) person/human = pessoa (f), humano (m)
37) man = homem (m)
38) woman = mulher (f)
39) child = criança (f), menino/menina
40) hair/fur = cabelo (m), pele (f)
41) mouth = boca (f)
42) neck = pescoço (m), colo (m)
43) foot/leg = pé (m), perna (f)
44) feather = pena (f), pluma (f)
45) grease/fat = graxa (f), gordura (f)
46) smoke = fumaça (f)
47) ash/soot = cinza (f), fuligem (f)
48) sand = areia (f)
49) wood = madeira (f)
50) root = raiz (f)
51) rope/cord = corda (f)
52) path/road = caminho (m), estrada (f)
53) year = ano (m)

Verbs:
54) die = morrer
55) see/look/watch = ver, olhar, enxergar
56) hear/listen = ouvir, escutar
57) know = saber, conhecer
58) drink = beber
59) give = dar, doar
60) come = vir
61) stand = levantar[-se], ficar
62) sit/set = sentar[-se], assentar
63) lie/lay = deitar[-se]
64) fly = voar
65) eat = comer
66) bite = morder
67) burn = queimar
68) kill = matar
69) say/tell/speak/talk = dizer, falar
70) laugh = rir, gargalhar

Adjectives:
71) new = novo/nova
72) full = cheio/cheia, pleno/plena
73) good = bom/boa
74) long = longo/longa, comprido/comprida
75) red = vermelho/vermelha
76) black = preto/preta
77) white = branco/branca
78) green = verde
79) yellow = amarelo/amarela
80) small/little = pequeno/pequena
81) big/large = grande
82) wide/broad = largo/larga
83) heavy = pesado/pesada
84) old = velho/velho
85) dry = seco/seca

Other:
86) I/me = eu/me/mim
87) you = você, tu/te/ti, vocês, vós/vos
88) what/which = que, qual
89) who/whom = quem
90) one/a/an = um/uma
91) two = dois/duas
92) not/no = não
93) this/these = este/esta/estes/estas, isto
94) we/us = nós/nos
95) all/everything/everyone = todo/toda/todos/todas, tudo

Please let me know if you spot any mistakes here. And if you take this list and translate it into another language, that would be awesome! I'd be sure to give you some lingots! More versions can be found here. (Be sure to check what's been translated already before posting your own.) And if you like this kind of thing, check out my website for more!

September 14, 2014

26 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/ValerieSLE

En français ;).

Nouns:

1) name = nome = nom 2) water = água = eau 3) blood = sangue = sang 4) fire = fogo = feu 5) stone/rock = pedra, rocha = pierre, roche 6) dog = cachorro, cão = chien 7) fish = peixe = poisson 8) louse/flea = piolho, pulga = pou, puce 9) hand/arm = mão, braço = main, bras 10) eye = olho = oeil 11) ear = orelha, ouvido = oreille 12) nose = nariz = nez 13) tongue = língua = langue 14) tooth = dente = dent 15) bone = osso = os 16) horn = chifre = corne 17) tail = rabo = queue 18) egg = ovo = oeuf 19) leaf = folha = feuille 20) night = noite = nuit 21) star = estrela = étoile 22) sun = sol = soleil 23) moon = lua = lune 24) earth/soil = terra, solo = terre, sol 25) salt = sal = sel 26) mountain = montanha = montagne 27) tree = árvore = arbre 28) rain = chuva = pluie 29) wind = vento = vent 30) bird = pássaro = oiseau 31) flesh/meat = carne = viande 32) liver = fígado = foie 33) skin/hide = pele = peau 34) knee = joelho = genou 35) breast = busto, peito = buste 36) person = pessoa = personne 37) man = homem = homme 38) woman = mulher = femme 39) child = criança, menino/menina = enfant 40) hair = cabelo = cheveu 41) mouth = boca = bouche 42) neck = pescoço = cou 43) foot/leg = pé, perna = pied, jambre 44) feather = pena, pluma = plume 45) grease/fat = graxa, gordura = graisse, gras, gros, grosse 46) smoke = fumaça = fumée 47) ash/soot = cinza, fuligem = cendre, suie 48) sand = areia = sable 49) wood = madeira = bois 50) root = raiz = racine 51) rope = corda = corde 52) path/road = caminho, estrada = chemin, route 53) year = ano = an, année

Verbs:

54) die = morrer = mourir 55) see = ver, enxergar = voir 56) hear = escutar = écouter 57) know = saber, conhecer = connaître, savoir 58) drink = beber = boire 59) give = dar = donner 60) come = vir = venir 61) stand = levantar-se, ficar = se lever 62) sit = sentar-se = s'asseoir 63) lie/recline = deitar-se, recostar-se = s'allonger, se redresser 64) fly = voar = voler 65) eat = comer = manger 66) bite = morder = mordre 67) burn = queimar = bruler 68) kill = matar = tuer 69) say = dizer, falar = dire 70) laugh = rir, gargalhar = rire

Adjectives:

71) new = novo/nova = nouveau 72) full = cheio/cheia, pleno/plena = plein, pleine 73) good = bom/boa = bon, bonne 74) long = longo/longa, comprido/comprida = long, longue 75) red = vermelho/vermelha = rouge 76) black = preto/preta = noir, noire 77) white = branco/branca = blanc, blanche 78) green = verde = vert, verte 79) yellow = amarelo/amarela = jaune 80) small = pequeno/pequena = petit, petite 81) big = grande = grand, grande 82) wide = largo/larga = large 83) heavy = pesado/pesada = lourd, lourde 84) old = velho/velho = vieux, vieille 85) dry = seco/seca = sec, sèche

Other:

86) I/me = eu/me/mim = Je, moi 87) you = tu, você, vocês = tu, vous 88) what = que = quoi, que 89) who/whom = quem = qui 90) one = um/uma = un, une 91) two = dois/duas = deux 92) not = não = ne 93) this = este/esta, isto = ce, ça 94) we/us = nós = nous 95) all = todo/toda, tudo = tout, toute, tous, toutes

Voilà ;).

September 14, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/blurflux

16) horns = cornos = cornes 17) tail = cauda = queue 31) any food, eatable meat = vianda = viande 42) lap (anywhere)/neck (mostly in Portugal) = colo 47) dirt = sujeira, dirty = sujo(a) 48) a mixture of sand and clay used in construction, thick sand with pebbles = saibro 59) give = doar = donner 61) take = levar 62) sit (something or someone else), settle, register = assentar 63) stretch = se alongar 64) verbs: eat, understand deeply about something, look furtively at someone else in the urinals (haha), noun: Brazilian custards with a soft texture and flavor = manjar

:)

June 4, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr

For your convenience, I've added genders to the nouns.

September 18, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/Davu

I think number 56 is best translated as "ouvir" and not "escutar" which is better suited to listen than hear. In your Spanish version I see you chose "oír" over "escuchar" and my guess is that there is a similar interplay between the two words in both languages.

September 16, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr

Yes, I think you're right. Thanks!

September 16, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/MagusAgnus

Please, do not use corno when you speak with brazilians. It's a slang for betrayed husband and can be offensive how you put in the sentence. Use chifre as horn. :D

September 26, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr

Thanks for the tip! This is intended to be Brazilian Portuguese like DL offers, so Ive just removed corno.

September 28, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/blurflux

Weirdly enough, cornos can still be used to mean horns or the top of someone's head in general. (Ele levou uma porrada nos cornos = he got beat/he was struck in his head.)

We tend to pronounce cornos (cuckolds) with a close-mid ô sound and cornos (actual horns) with an open-mid ó sound, though tecnically both should get ó.

June 4, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr

Thanks for the tip. I just added corno back in based on your other comment. This listed is intended to be more for comparing vocabulary across languages than anything else, so I don't think the slang will be a problem.

June 4, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/MagusAgnus

You can create aumentatives and diminutives nouns adding (ão, zão, for aumentatives and inho, zinho for diminutives)

Example: "Casa" = house -> casinha (f) (little house) casão (m) (aumentative)

This works for many nouns but there are some nouns that have an alternative form

Example = Casa -> "casebre (m) (little)" and "casarão (m) (big)"

Try to create the aumentative and diminutive of your words list as exercise

September 29, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/BombshellB

Great job! Thank you! Obrigado!☺

September 14, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/Elen-ka

Based on your profile picture it should be ObrigadA

September 15, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/Marshallissane

Mutio obrigado

September 17, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr

No, I hadn't. Thanks!

October 3, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/FerencNagy864247

I was reading Kató Lomb's book during a lesson on analytical chemistry. The professor noticed it. https://moly.hu/system/covers/normal/covers_2759.jpg?1395343578

April 14, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Scutigera

This is great. :)

However I do not see um pouco for "a little", or muito, mais either.

April 6, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/mpb2101

Does this still work for Portuguese from Portugal?

September 21, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/blurflux

A few words are slightly different but you'd be understood there.

May 25, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/vascotuga251

Yes, pretty much it

6) dog = cachorro (m), cão (m)
40) hair/fur = cabelo (m), pele pelo (m)
46) smoke = fumaça fumo (m)
55) see/look/watch = ver, olhar, enxergar

September 4, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Scutigera

But, pelo and fumo are not feminine (are they?). =]

Thanks for the update though. Always looking for the Euro angle. :)

September 7, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/vascotuga251

DAMN IT! Forgot to change the sex of the words xD

September 7, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Scutigera

=) That's cool. Glad we could get it fixed.

Is pele then the Euro word for skin and pelo the word for fur

September 12, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/vascotuga251

Exactly.
- Pele: skin
- Fumaça (fumarada is more common): huge smoke
- cachorro: hot dog xD

September 12, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/LICA98

Isn't "us" "nos", and not "nós"?

September 14, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr

Good catch! The object form has an accent only when it follows a preposition. Updated.

September 14, 2014
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