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https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

95 Core Concepts Across Languages

What are the most basic, elementary, core concepts that virtually all languages express? Many linguists have put a great deal of effort into answering this question, and several short word lists have come out of it. The most famous are probably the Swadesh lists, based mostly on intuition and refined over time. Later lists like the Leipzig-Jakarta have used more stringent methods to determine which vocabulary items are most resistant to borrowing and change over time.

What I've done here is taken five such word lists (Swadesh 100, Ranked Swadesh 40, Swadesh-Yakhontov, Leipzig-Jakarta, and Woodward) and kept only the items that occur in at least two of the lists.

Nouns:
1) name
2) water
3) blood
4) fire
5) stone/rock
6) dog
7) fish
8) louse/flea
9) hand/arm
10) eye
11) ear
12) nose
13) tongue
14) tooth
15) bone
16) horn
17) tail
18) egg
19) leaf
20) night/evening
21) star
22) sun
23) moon
24) earth/soil
25) salt
26) mountain
27) tree
28) rain
29) wind
30) bird
31) flesh/meat
32) liver
33) skin/hide
34) knee
35) breast/chest
36) person/human
37) man
38) woman
39) child
40) hair/fur
41) mouth
42) neck
43) foot/leg
44) feather
45) grease/fat
46) smoke
47) ash/soot
48) sand
49) wood
50) root
51) rope/cord
52) path/road
53) year

Verbs:
54) die
55) see/look/watch
56) hear/listen
57) know
58) drink
59) give
60) come
61) stand
62) sit/set
63) lie/lay
64) fly
65) eat
66) bite
67) burn
68) kill
69) say/tell/speak/talk
70) laugh

Adjectives:
71) new
72) full
73) good
74) long
75) red
76) black
77) white
78) green
79) yellow
80) small/little
81) big/large
82) wide/broad
83) heavy
84) old
85) dry

Other:
86) I/me
87) you
88) what/which
89) who/whom
90) one/a/an
91) two
92) not/no
93) this/these
94) we/us
95) all/everything/everyone

I've been posting different translations of this list in the forums here and getting several more translations back as responses. These are the languages we have so far:

  1. Albanian
  2. Arabic
  3. Armenian
  4. Calda (Alo)
  5. Chinese (Mandarin)
  6. Danish
  7. Dutch (Netherlands)
  8. Esperanto
  9. Finnish
  10. French
  11. German
  12. Gowee (Alo)
  13. Hindi
  14. Hungarian
  15. Icelandic
  16. Irish
  17. Italian
  18. Japanese
  19. Latin (Classical)
  20. Malay (Malaysian)
  21. Maltese
  22. Norwegian (Bokmål)
  23. Polish
  24. Portuguese (Brazilian)
  25. Romanian
  26. Russian
  27. Serbian
  28. Slovene
  29. Spanish
  30. Thai
  31. Turkish
  32. Ukrainian
  33. Yili (Alo)
  34. Yomba (Alo)

If you'd like to help out by translating this list into another language not listed here, just post your work as a comment, and I'll be sure to pay you some lingots. A big thanks to everybody who's helped so far!

Formatting note: To keep your line breaks in a Duolingo post (without skipping a line), you have to include two spaces at the end of each line.

Update: I've added a second list based more on word frequency, bringing the total to an even 200. If you like this kind of thing, check out my website for more!

September 15, 2014

74 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Selcen_Ozturk

I will also list the translations in Turkish so you can get ready for our course ;)

pronunciation guide:

  • ş: sh as in English
  • ç: ch as in chat
  • c: j as in joy
  • ö: like German ö (similar to the sound in English bird)
  • ü: like German ü (similar to the e sound in new)
  • ı: similar to the e sound in open
  • ğ is more or less silent but makes the vowel before it longer.

  • 1) name: ad/isim

  • 2) water: su
  • 3) blood: kan
  • 4) fire: ateş
  • 5) stone/rock: taş/kaya
  • 6) dog: köpek
  • 7) fish: balık
  • 8) louse/flea: bit/pire (why is this in the important words list:) )
  • 9) hand/arm: el/kol
  • 10) eye: göz
  • 11) ear: kulak
  • 12) nose: burun
  • 13) tongue: dil
  • 14) tooth: diş
  • 15) bone: kemik
  • 16) horn: boynuz
  • 17) tail: kuyruk
  • 18) egg: yumurta
  • 19) leaf: yaprak
  • 20) night: gece
  • 21) star: yıldız
  • 22) sun: güneş
  • 23) moon: ay
  • 24) earth/soil: yeryüzü/toprak
  • 25) salt: tuz
  • 26) mountain: dağ
  • 27) tree: ağaç
  • 28) rain: yağmur
  • 29) wind: rüzgar
  • 30) bird: kuş
  • 31) flesh/meat: et
  • 32) liver: karaciğer
  • 33) skin/hide: deri
  • 34) knee: diz
  • 35) breast: göğüs
  • 36) person: insan/kişi
  • 37) man: adam/insan
  • 38) woman: kadın
  • 39) child: çocuk
  • 40) hair: saç
  • 41) mouth: ağız
  • 42) neck: boyun
  • 43) foot/leg: ayak/bacak
  • 44) feather: tüy
  • 45) grease/fat: yağ
  • 46) smoke: duman
  • 47) ash/soot: kül
  • 48) sand: ❤❤❤
  • 49) wood: tahta
  • 50) root: kök
  • 51) rope: ip
  • 52) path/road: yol
  • 53) year: yıl

Verbs: Turkish verbs en with -mek or -mak (infinitive), according to the vowel harmony

  • 54) die: ölmek
  • 55) see: görmek
  • 56) hear: duymak
  • 57) know: bilmek
  • 58) drink: içmek
  • 59) give: vermek
  • 60) come: gelmek
  • 61) stand: durmak/dikilmek
  • 62) sit: oturmak
  • 63) lie/recline: yatmak
  • 64) fly: uçmak
  • 65) eat: yemek
  • 66) bite: ısrmak
  • 67) burn: yanmak/yakmak
  • 68) kill: öldürmek
  • 69) say: söylemek/demek
  • 70) laugh: gülmek

Adjectives:

  • 71) new: yeni
  • 72) full: dolu
  • 73) good: iyi
  • 74) long: uzun
  • 75) red: kırmızı
  • 76) black: siyah/kara
  • 77) white: beyaz/ak
  • 78) green: yeşil
  • 79) yellow: sarı
  • 80) small: küçük
  • 81) big: büyük
  • 82) wide: geniş
  • 83) heavy: ağır
  • 84) old: yaşlı/ eski
  • 85) dry: kuru

Other:

  • 86) I/me: ben/beni/bana
  • 87) you: sen/seni/sana
  • 88) what: ne
  • 89) who/whom: kim/kimi/kime
  • 90) one: bir
  • 91) two: iki
  • 92) not: değil
  • 93) this: bu
  • 94) we/us: biz/bizi/bize
  • 95) all: hepsi/bütün

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

Thanks for the Turkish list!!!

About your louse comment, I was thinking the same thing at first. Even the plural lice is not so common, so why include it in such a short list? Thing thing is, these are not necessarily frequently occurring words, or even useful words; they are "core concepts". In this context, "core" is defined technically as resistance to change over time. Linguists use lists like this to evaluate the similarity (and probable relatedness) of languages.

As a next step, I'd like to put some word frequency lists together for a few major languages (at least Mandarin, English, and Spanish) to see which concepts are most frequently expressed across this sample of languages. From there I'll be posting a follow-up with a new set of concepts, frequently expressed but not listed here.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/paanmokhtar

In Malay/Bahasa Malaysia

Nouns:

1) name: nama
2) water: air
3) blood: darah
4) fire: api
5) stone/rock: batu
6) dog: anjing
7) fish: ikan
8) louse/flea: kutu
9) hand/arm: tangan
10) eye: mata
11) ear: telinga
12) nose: hidung
13) tongue: lidah
14) tooth: gigi
15) bone: tulang
16) horn: tanduk
17) tail: ekor
18) egg: telur
19) leaf: daun
20) night: malam
21) star: bintang
22) sun: matahari
23) moon: bulan
24) earth/soil: bumi/tanah
25) salt: garam
26) mountain: gunung
27) tree: pokok
28) rain: hujan
29) wind: angin
30) bird: burung
31) flesh/meat: daging
32) liver: hati
33) skin/hide: kulit
34) knee: lutut
35) breast/chest: dada
36) person: orang
37) man: lelaki
38) woman: wanita/perempuan
39) child: kanak-kanak
40) hair: rambut
41) mouth: mulut
42) neck: leher
43) foot/leg: kaki
44) feather: bulu
45) grease/fat: lemak
46) smoke: asap
47) ash/soot: abu
48) sand: pasir
49) wood: kayu
50) root: akar
51) rope: tali
52) path/road: jalan
53) year: tahun

Verbs:

54) die: mati
55) see: lihat/tengok
56) hear: dengar
57) know: tahu
58) drink: minum
59) give: kasi/beri
60) come: datang
61) stand: diri
62) sit: duduk
63) lie down: baring
64) fly: terbang
65) eat: makan
66) bite: gigit
67) burn: bakar
68) kill: bunuh
69) say: cakap/kata
70) laugh: ketawa

Adjectives:

71) new: baru
72) full: penuh
73) good: bagus/baik
74) long: panjang
75) red: merah
76) black: hitam
77) white: putih
78) green: hijau
79) yellow: kuning
80) small/little: kecil
81) big/large: besar
82) wide: lebar
83) heavy: berat
84) old: tua/lama
85) dry: kering

Other:

86) I/me: saya
87) you: kamu/awak/engkau
88) what: apa
89) who/whom: siapa
90) a/one: se/satu
91) two: dua
92) not: tidak/bukan
93) this/these: ini
94) we/us: kami
95) all/everything/everyone: semua


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/OnesimusUnbound

It's interesting to actually compare your list with Tagalog (mine) and see there are similarities. Moreover, other languages in the Philippines are similar with some words in your list. After all, our languages hails from the same language family, the Austronesian languages.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

That's just what this kind of list was made for! Very cool.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/paanmokhtar

Yeah, I saw your list and was quite surprised how much we share in common. I can even sort of guess what a word means without looking at it's meaning. Besides Indonesian, I guess Tagalog is a very close relative to Malay.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SGreg85

Hungarian: 1) name-név 2) water-víz 3) blood-vér 4) fire-tűz 5) stone/rock-kő/szikla 6) dog-kutya 7) fish-hal 8) louse/flea-tetű/bolha 9) hand/arm-kéz/kar 10) eye-szem 11) ear-fül 12) nose-orr 13) tongue-nyelv 15) tooth-fog 16) bone-csont 17) horn-szarv 18) egg-tojás 19) leaf-levél 20) night-éjszaka 21) star-csillag 22) sun-nap 23) moon-hold 24) earth/soil-föld/talaj 25) salt-só 26) mountain-hegy 27) tree-fa 28) rain-eső 29) wind-szél 30) bird-madár 31) flesh/meat-hús 32) liver-máj 33) skin/hide-bőr 34) knee-térd 35) breast-mell 36) person-személy 37) man-férfi 38) woman-nő 39) child-gyerek 40) hair-haj 41) mouth-száj 42) neck-nyak 43) foot/leg-lábfej/láb 44) feather-toll 45) grease/fat-zsír 46) smoke-füst 47) ash/soot-hamu/korom 48) sand-homok 49) wood-fa 50) root-gyökér 51) rope-kötél 52) path/road-út 53) year-év 54) die-meghalni 55) see-látni 56) hear-hallani 57) know-tudni 58) drink-inni 59) give-adni 60) come-jönni 61) stand-állni 62) sit-ülni 63) lie/recline-feküdni 64) fly-repülni 65) eat-enni 66) bite-harapni 67) burn-égni 68) kill-megölni 69) say-mondani 70) laugh-nevetni 71) new-új 72) full-teljes/egész 73) good-jó 74) long-hosszú 75) red-piros 76) black-fekete 77) white-fehér 78) green-zöld 79) yellow-sárga 80) small-kicsi 81) big-nagy 82) wide-széles 83) heavy-nehéz 84) old-régi 85) dry-száraz 86) i/me-én 87) you-te 88) what-mi 89) who/whom-ki/akit 90) one-egy 91) two-kettő 92) not-nem 93) this-ez 94) we/us-mi 95) all-minden


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/linguafiqari

Me isn't Én, Who/Whom should be Aki/Ki/Akit/Kit, and Us isn't Mi


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SGreg85

You are right with the 'who/whom' but it's highly depends on the situation, i didn't want to write every possibility. The 'me' and the 'us' are correct, belive me, i'm a native :).


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/linguafiqari

Oh ok, nem tudtam, hogy magyarul beszélsz :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ReidHT

Doing this in Romanian, know a little but natives or fluent speakers please correct me :) I took this from my small knowledge and a dictionary website. the website is http://www.dictionare.com/ and also google translate as a second check.

Nouns: 1) name- nume? 2) water- apa 3) blood- sange 4) fire- foc? 5) stone/rock- piatra 6) dog- câine 7) fish- peste? 8) louse/flea- purice 9) hand/arm- mana/brat 10) eye- ochi 11) ear- ureche 12) nose- nas/bot 13) tongue- limba? I think this means language, not tongue as in the body part. 14) tooth- dinte 15) bone- as 16) horn- corn? 17) tail- coada 18) egg- ou 19) leaf- frunze or frunza? 20) night/evening- noapte 21) star- stele, stea? 22) sun- soare 23) moon- luna 24) earth/soil- pamânt 25) salt- sare 26) mountain- munte 27) tree- copac? 28) rain- ploaie 29) wind- vânt 30) bird- pasare 31) flesh/meat- carne 32) liver- ficat 33) skin/hide- piele 34) knee- genunchi 35) breast/chest- piept 36) person/human- uman (for human) 37) man/male- barbat 38) woman/female- femeie 39) child/son/daughter- copil 40) hair- par 41) mouth- gura 42) neck- gât 43) foot/leg- picior 44) feather- pana 45) grease/fat- grasime (fat?) 46) smoke- fum 47) ash/soot- frasin, cenusa 48) sand- nisip 49) wood- bradet? 50) root- rădăcină 51) rope- funie 52) path/road- drum 53) year- an Verbs: 54) die- muri 55) see/look/watch- I don't know..? 56) hear- auzi 57) know- stiu 58) drink- bea 59) give- da 60) come- veni 61) stand- sta?? 62) sit- sta?????? google transllate and this romanian-english dictionary are being weird. 63) lie down- culca 64) fly- ??? 65) eat- manca 66) bite- muşcătură 67) burn- arde 68) kill- omorî 69) say/tell/speak/talk- discuţie 70) laugh- rade? Adjectives: 71) new- nou 72) full- complet 73) good/well- bun 74) long- lung 75) red- rosu 76) black- negru 77) white- alb 78) green- verde 79) yellow- galben 80) small/little- mic 81) big/large- mare 82) wide- larg 83) heavy- greu 84) old- vechi? 85) dry- uscat Other: 86) I/me- eu 87) you- tu, voi 88) what/which/that- care 89) who/whom- cine 90) a/one- o 91) two- doi 92) not- nu 93) this/these- acest/ acesti 94) we/us- noi 95) all/every/everything/everyone- tot (all)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dilez
  • 13) tongue- limba? I think this means language, not tongue as in the body part.
    It means both
  • 19) leaf- frunze or frunza?
    Frunză is singular while frunze is plural
  • 49) wood- bradet?
    lemn, brădet is a fir tree forest
  • 55) see/look/watch- I don't know..?
    to see = a vedea; to look = a privi, a se uita la;
  • 61) stand- sta?? 62) sit- sta?????? google transllate and this romanian-english dictionary are being weird.
    It is correct, there is only one word. You can use "a sta în picioare" for stand and "a sta jos" for sit.
  • 84) old- vechi?
    vechi for objects and bătrân(ă) for people
  • 87) you- tu, voi
    there's also the polite form, dumneavoastră
  • 90) a/one- o
    The articles are "o" for feminine and "un" for masculine. The number is "unu".

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ReidHT

Thank you for your corrections! :) But what is the difference between tu and voi?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dilez

"Tu" is singular, "voi" is plural. Also, "dumneavoastră" uses the "voi" conjugations.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DjoekeWentink

Danish 1) name = navn 2) water = vand / 3) blood = blod 4) fire = brand 5) stone/rock = sten 6) dog = hund 7) fish = fisk 8) louse/flea = lus/loppe 9) hand/arm = hånd/arm 10) eye = øje 11) ear = øre 12) nose = næse 13) tongue = tunge 14) tooth = tand 15) bone = knogle/ben 16) horn = horn 17) tail = hale 18) egg = æg 19) leaf = blad 20) night = nat 21) star = stjerne 22) sun = sol 23) moon = månen 24) earth/soil = jord 25) salt = salt 26) mountain = bjerg 27) tree = træ 28) rain = regn 29) wind = vind 30) bird = fugl 31) flesh/meat = kød 32) liver = lever 33) skin/hide = hud/skind 34) knee = knæ 35) breast = bryst 36) person = person 37) man = mand 38) woman = kvinde 39) child = barn 40) hair = hår 41) mouth= mund 42) neck = hals 43) foot/leg = fod/ben 44) feather = fjer 45) grease/fat = fedt 46) smoke = røg 47) ash/soot = aske/sod 48) sand = sand 49) wood = træ 50) root = rod 51) rope = tov 52) path/road = sti/vej 53) year = år

Verbs:

54) die = dø 55) see = se 56) hear = høre 57) know = vide 58) drink = drikke 59) give = gi 60) come = komme 61) stand = stå 62) sit = sidde 63) lie/recline = ligge 64) fly = flyve 65) eat = spise 66) bite = bide 67) burn = brænde 68) kill = dræbe 69) say = sige 70) laugh = grine

Adjectives:

71) new = ny 72) full = fuld 73) good = god 74) long = lang 75) red = rød 76) black = sort 77) white = hvid 78) green = grøn 79) yellow = gul 80) small = lille 81) big = stor 82) wide = bred 83) heavy = tung 84) old = gammel 85) dry = tør

Other:

86) I/me = jeg/mig 87) you = du 88) what = hvad 89) who/whom = hvem 90) one = en 91) two= to 92) not = ikke 93) this = dette/denne 94) we/us = vi/os 95) all = alle


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/davidvdb

In Dutch

Nouns:

  • 1) name = naam (de)
  • 2) water = water (het)
  • 3) blood = bloed (het)
  • 4) fire = vuur (het)
  • 5) stone/rock = steen (de) / rots (de)
  • 6) dog = hond (de)
  • 7) fish = vis (de)
  • 8) louse/flea = luis (de) / vlo (de)
  • 9) hand/arm = hand (de) / arm (de)
  • 10) eye = oog (het)
  • 11) ear = oor (het)
  • 12) nose = neus (de)
  • 13) tongue = tong (de)
  • 14) tooth = tand (de)
  • 15) bone = bot (het)
  • 16) horn = hoorn (de)
  • 17) tail = staart (de)
  • 18) egg = ei (het)
  • 19) leaf = blad (het)
  • 20) night = nacht (de)
  • 21) star = ster (de)
  • 22) sun = zon (de)
  • 23) moon = maan (de)
  • 24) earth/soil = aarde (de) / bodem (de)
  • 25) salt = zout (het)
  • 26) mountain = berg (de)
  • 27) tree = boom (de)
  • 28) rain = regen (de)
  • 29) wind = wind (de)
  • 30) bird = vogel (de)
  • 31) flesh/meat = vlees (het)
  • 32) liver = lever (de)
  • 33) skin/hide = huid (de), vel (het)
  • 34) knee = knie (de)
  • 35) breast = borst (de)
  • 36) person = persoon (de)
  • 37) man = man (de)
  • 38) woman = vrouw (de)
  • 39) child = kind (het)
  • 40) hair = haar (het)
  • 41) mouth = mond (de)
  • 42) neck = nek (de)
  • 43) foot/leg = voet (de) / been (het)
  • 44) feather = veer (de), pluim (de)
  • 45) grease/fat = vet (het)
  • 46) smoke = rook (de)
  • 47) ash/soot = as (de) / roet (het)
  • 48) sand = zand (het)
  • 49) wood = hout (het)
  • 50) root = wortel (de)
  • 51) rope = touw (het)
  • 52) path/road = pad (het) / weg (de)
  • 53) year = jaar (het)

Verbs:

  • 54) die = sterven, doodgaan
  • 55) see = zien
  • 56) hear = horen
  • 57) know = weten, kennen
  • 58) drink = drinken
  • 59) give = geven
  • 60) come = komen
  • 61) stand = staan
  • 62) sit = zitten
  • 63) lie/recline = liggen
  • 64) fly = vliegen
  • 65) eat = eten
  • 66) bite = bijten
  • 67) burn = branden, verbranden
  • 68) kill = vermoorden, doden
  • 69) say = zeggen
  • 70) laugh = lachen

Adjectives:

  • 71) new = nieuw
  • 72) full = vol
  • 73) good = goed
  • 74) long = lang
  • 75) red = rood
  • 76) black = zwart
  • 77) white = wit
  • 78) green = groen
  • 79) yellow = geel
  • 80) small = klein
  • 81) big = groot
  • 82) wide = wijd, breed
  • 83) heavy = zwaar
  • 84) old = oud
  • 85) dry = droog

Other:

  • 86) I/me = ik / me, mij
  • 87) you = je, jij / jou
  • 88) what = wat
  • 89) who/whom = wie
  • 90) one = één
  • 91) two = twee
  • 92) not = niet
  • 93) this/that = deze, dit/die, dat
  • 94) we/us = wij/ons
  • 95) all = allemaal / al(le)

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ijoni

Albanian:

Nouns (definite forms only):

1) name - emri

2) water - uji

3) blood - gjaku

4) fire -zjarri

5) stone/rock -guri/shkëmbi

6) dog - qeni

7) fish - peshku

8) louse/flea - morri/pleshti

9) hand/arm - dora/krahu

10) eye - syri

11) ear - veshi

12) nose - hunda

13) tongue - gjuha

14) tooth - dhëmbi

15) bone - kocka

16) horn - briri

17) tail - bishti

18) egg - veza

19) leaf -gjethja

20) night/evening - nata/mbrëmja

21) star - ylli

22) sun - dielli

23) moon - hëna

24) earth/soil - toka/dheu

25) salt - kripa

26) mountain - mali

27) tree - pema

28) rain - shiu

29) wind - era

30) bird - zogu

31) flesh/meat - mishi

32) liver - mëlçia

33) skin/hide - lëkura

34) knee - gjuri

35) breast/chest - gjoksi/kraharori

36) person/human - njeriu

37) man/male - burri

38) woman/female - gruaja

39) child/son/daughter - fëmija/biri/bija

40) hair - floku, flokët

41) mouth - goja

42) neck - qafa

43) foot/leg - këmba

44) feather - penda

45) grease/fat - yndyra/dhjami

46) smoke - tymi

47) ash/soot - hiri

48) sand - rëra

49) wood - druri

50) root - rrënja

51) rope - litari

52) path/road - rruga

53) year - viti

Verbs (first person singular only):

54) die - vdes

55) see/look/watch - shoh

56) hear - dëgjoj

57) know - di

58) drink - pi

59) give - jap

60) come -vij

61) stand - rri

62) sit - ulem

63) lie down - shtrihem

64) fly - fluturoj

65) eat - ha

66) bite - kafshoj

67) burn - djeg

68) kill - vras

69) say/tell/speak/talk - them/flas

70) laugh - qesh

Adjectives:

71) new - ri

72) full - plot

73) good/well - mirë

74) long - gjatë

75) red - kuq

76) black - zi

77) white - bardhë

78) green - gjelbër

79) yellow - verdhë

80) small/little - vogël

81) big/large - madh

82) wide - gjërë

83) heavy - rëndë

84) old - vjetër

85) dry - thatë

Other:

86) I/me - unë, mua[më]

87) you - ti, ty[të], ju(pl.)

88) what/which/that - ç'/që

89) who/whom - kush

90) a/one - një

91) two - dy

92) not - mos, s', nuk

93) this/these - ky/këta

94) we/us - ne, ne[na]

95) all/every/everything/everyone - gjithë

[..] - includes short traits of pronouns, you always put before a verb.

E.g. Të dua - I love you.

Të - You; dua - I love.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/rootEnginear

in Thai ('a i u e o' like spanish; 'ae ue' like german 'ä ü'. a lot of word in the list is use /ɔ/ sound. But I represent in /o/ sound instead; The 'middle low falling high raising' is represent a syllable tone)

  • 1) name : ชื่อ ( chuue : falling )
  • 2) water : น้ำ ( naam : high )
  • 3) blood : เลือด ( luead : falling )
  • 4) fire : ไฟ ( fai : middle )
  • 5) stone/rock : หิน ( hin : rising )
  • 6) dog : สุนัข ( su-nak : low-high )
  • 7) fish : ปลา ( pla : middle )
  • 8) louse/flea : เหา/หมัด ( hao/mad : rising/middle )
  • 9) hand/arm : มือ/แขน ( mue/khaen : middle/rising )
  • 10) eye : ตา ( ta : middle )
  • 11) ear : หู ( hu : rising )
  • 12) nose : จมูก ( ja-muuk : low-low )
  • 13) tongue : ลิ้น ( lin : high )
  • 14) tooth : ฟัน ( faan : middle )
  • 15) bone : กระดูก ( kra-duuk : low-low )
  • 16) horn : เขา ( kao : rising )
  • 17) tail : หาง ( haang : rising )
  • 18) egg : ไข่ ( kai : low )
  • 19) leaf : ใบไม้ ( bai-mai : middle-high )
  • 20) night : กลางคืน ( glang-khuen : middle-middle )
  • 21) star : (ดวง)ดาว ( (duang)dao : (middle)middle )
  • 22) sun : ดวงอาทิตย์ ( duang-aa-thid : middle-middle-high )
  • 23) moon : ดวงจันทร์ ( duang-jaan : middle-middle )
  • 24) earth/soil : โลก/ดิน ( lok/din : falling/middle )
  • 25) salt : เกลือ ( gluea : middle )
  • 26) mountain : ภูเขา ( puu-khao : middle-rising )
  • 27) tree : ต้นไม้ ( ton-mai : falling-high )
  • 28) rain : ฝน ( fon : rising )
  • 29) wind : ลม ( lom : middle )
  • 30) bird : นก ( nok : high )
  • 31) flesh/meat : เนื้อ ( nuea : high )
  • 32) liver : ตับ ( tub : low )
  • 33) skin/hide : ผิวหนัง ( piw-nang : rising-rising )
  • 34) knee : เข่า ( khao : low )
  • 35) breast : หน้าอก ( na-ok : falling-low )
  • 36) person : บุคคล ( book-kon : low-middle )
  • 37) man : ผู้ชาย ( puu-chai : falling-middle )
  • 38) woman : ผู้หญิง ( puu-ying : falling-rising )
  • 39) child : เด็ก ( dek : low )
  • 40) hair : ผม ( phom : rising )
  • 41) mouth : ปาก ( paak : low )
  • 42) neck : คอ ( kho : middle )
  • 43) foot/leg : เท้า/ขา ( tao/kha : high/rising )
  • 44) feather : ขน ( khon : rising )
  • 45) grease/fat : ไขมัน ( kai-man : rising-middle )
  • 46) smoke : ควัน ( kwan : middle )
  • 47) ash/soot : เถ้า/ฝุ่น ( tao/fun : falling/low )
  • 48) sand : ทราย ( sai : middle )
  • 49) wood : ไม้ ( mai : high )
  • 50) root : ราก ( rak : falling )
  • 51) rope : เชือก ( chueak : falling )
  • 52) path/road : ถนน ( ta-non : low-rising )
  • 53) year : ปี ( pii : middle ) Verbs:
  • 54) die : ตาย ( tay : middle )
  • 55) see : เห็น ( hen : rising )
  • 56) hear : ได้ยิน ( dai-yin : falling-middle )
  • 57) know : รู้ ( ruu : high )
  • 58) drink : ดื่ม ( duem : low )
  • 59) give : ให้ ( hai : falling )
  • 60) come : มา ( mai : middle )
  • 61) stand : ยืน ( yuen : middle )
  • 62) sit : นั่ง ( nang : falling )
  • 63) lie down : นอนลง ( non-long : middle-middle )
  • 64) fly : บิน ( bin : middle )
  • 65) eat : กิน ( kin : middle )
  • 66) bite : กัด ( kad : low )
  • 67) burn : เผา ( pao : rising )
  • 68) kill : ฆ่า ( kha : falling )
  • 69) say : พูด ( pood : falling )
  • 70) laugh : หัวเราะ ( hua-roh : rising-high ) Adjectives:
  • 71) new : ใหม่ ( mai : low )
  • 72) full : เต็ม (Things)/อิ่ม (after eating; I'm full) ( tem/iim : middle/low )
  • 73) good : ดี ( dii : middle )
  • 74) long : ยาว ( yao : middle )
  • 75) red : แดง ( daeng : middle )
  • 76) black : ดำ ( dum : middle )
  • 77) white : ขาว ( khao : rising )
  • 78) green : เขียว ( keaw : rising )
  • 79) yellow : เหลือง ( lueang : rising )
  • 80) small : เล็ก ( lek : high )
  • 81) big : ใหญ่ ( yai : low )
  • 82) wide : กว้าง ( gwang : falling )
  • 83) heavy : หนัก/ยาก (difficult) ( nak/yak : low/falling )
  • 84) old : เก่า ( gao : low )
  • 85) dry : แห้ง ( haeng : falling ) Other:
  • 86) I/me : ฉัน/ผม ( chan/pom : rising/rising )
  • 87) you : คุณ ( khun : middle )
  • 88) what : อะไร ( aa-rai : low-middle )
  • 89) who/whom : ใคร ( krai : middle )
  • 90) a/one : (Thai isn't have 'a')/หนึ่ง ( nueng : low )
  • 91) two : สอง ( song : rising )
  • 92) not : ไม่ ( mai : falling )
  • 93) this : นี่ ( nii : falling )
  • 94) we/us : พวกเรา/พวกฉัน/พวกผม/เรา ( puak-rao/puak-chan/puak-pom/rao : falling-middle/falling-rising/falling-rising/middle )
  • 95) all : ทั้งหมด ( tung-mod : high-low )

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

Awesome, thanks! You seem to be missing one though:

หนึ่ง ( nueng : falling )

Did I get it right?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/rootEnginear

Yes, but it's low tone.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DjoekeWentink

Norwegian 1) name = navn 2) water = vann / 3) blood = blod 4) fire = brann 5) stone/rock = sten 6) dog = hund 7) fish = fisk 8) louse/flea = lus/loppe 9) hand/arm = hånd/arm 10) eye = øye 11) ear = øre 12) nose = nese 13) tongue = tunge 14) tooth = tann 15) bone = bein 16) horn = horn 17) tail = hale 18) egg = egg 19) leaf = blad 20) night = natt 21) star = stjerne 22) sun = sol 23) moon = månen 24) earth/soil = jord 25) salt = salt 26) mountain = fjell 27) tree = tre 28) rain = regn 29) wind = vind 30) bird = fugl 31) flesh/meat = kjøtt 32) liver = lever 33) skin/hide = hud/skinn 34) knee = knæ 35) breast = bryst 36) person = person 37) man = mann 38) woman = kvinne 39) child = barn 40) hair = hår 41) mouth= munn 42) neck = hals 43) foot/leg = fot/ben 44) feather = fjær 45) grease/fat = fett 46) smoke = røyk 47) ash/soot = aske/sot 48) sand = sand 49) wood = tre 50) root = rot 51) rope = tau 52) path/road = sti/vei 53) year = år

Verbs:

54) die = dø 55) see = se 56) hear = høre 57) know = vite 58) drink = drikke 59) give = gi 60) come = komme 61) stand = stå 62) sit = sitte 63) lie/recline = ligge 64) fly = fly 65) eat = spise 66) bite = bite 67) burn = brenne 68) kill = drepe 69) say = si 70) laugh = le

Adjectives:

71) new = ny 72) full = full 73) good = god 74) long = lang 75) red = rød 76) black = sort 77) white = hvit 78) green = grøn 79) yellow = gul 80) small = lille 81) big = stor 82) wide = bredt 83) heavy = tung 84) old = gammel 85) dry = tør

Other:

86) I/me = jeg/meg 87) you = du 88) what = hva 89) who/whom = hvem 90) one = en 91) two= to 92) not = ikke 93) this = dette/denne 94) we/us = vi/oss 95) all = alle


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/anachron

Norwegian:

1) name = navn

2) water = vann

3) blood = blod

4) fire = brann

5) stone/rock = sten

6) dog = hund

7) fish = fisk

8) louse/flea = lus/loppe

9) hand/arm = hånd/arm

10) eye = øye

11) ear = øre

12) nose = nese

13) tongue = tunge

14) tooth = tann

15) bone = bein

16) horn = horn

17) tail = hale

18) egg = egg

19) leaf = blad

20) night = natt

21) star = stjerne

22) sun = sol

23) moon = månen

24) earth/soil = jord

25) salt = salt

26) mountain = fjell

27) tree = tre

28) rain = regn

29) wind = vind

30) bird = fugl

31) flesh/meat = kjøtt

32) liver = lever

33) skin/hide = hud/skinn

34) knee = kne

35) breast = bryst

36) person = person

37) man = mann

38) woman = kvinne

39) child = barn

40) hair = hår

41) mouth = munn

42) neck = hals

43) foot/leg = fot/ben

44) feather = fjær

45) grease/fat = fett

46) smoke = røyk

47) ash/soot = aske/sot

48) sand = sand

49) wood = tre

50) root = rot

51) rope = tau

52) path/road = sti/vei

53) year = år

Verbs:

54) die = dø

55) see = se

56) hear = høre

57) know = vite

58) drink = drikke

59) give = gi

60) come = komme

61) stand = stå

62) sit = sitte

63) lie/recline = ligge

64) fly = fly

65) eat = spise

66) bite = bite

67) burn = brenne

68) kill = drepe

69) say = si

70) laugh = le

Adjectives:

71) new = ny

72) full = full

73) good = god

74) long = lang

75) red = rød

76) black = sort

77) white = hvit

78) green = grønn

79) yellow = gul

80) small = liten

81) big = stor

82) wide = bredt

83) heavy = tung

84) old = gammel

85) dry = tørr

Other:

86) I/me = jeg/meg

87) you = du

88) what = hva

89) who/whom = hvem

90) one = en

91) two = to

92) not = ikke

93) this = dette/denne

94) we/us = vi/oss

95) all = alle


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/fveldig

Some small corrections:

5) = sten,stein

15) = ben,stein

33) = hud

34) = kne

42) = hals,nakke (front neck, back neck)

43) = fot/ben,bein

76) = sort/sort/sort/sorte (M/F/N/P), svart/svart/svart/svarte (M/F/N/P)

78) = grønn/grønn/grønt/grønne (M/F/N/P)

80) = lite/lita/liten/små (M/F/N/P)

82) = bred/bred/bredt/brede (M/F/N/P)

85) = tørr


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/R-r-Leo

Ukrainian:

Іменники:

  • 1) name = і’мя n
  • 2) water = вода f
  • 3) blood = кров f
  • 4) fire = вогонь m
  • 5) stone/rock = камінь m
  • 6) dog = собака m
  • 7) fish = риба f
  • 8) louse/flea = воша f
  • 9) hand/arm = рука f
  • 10) eye = око n
  • 11) ear = вухо n
  • 12) nose = ніс m
  • 13) tongue = язик m
  • 14) tooth = зуб m
  • 15) bone = кістка f
  • 16) horn = ріг m
  • 17) tail = хвіст m
  • 18) egg = яйце n
  • 19) leaf = лист m
  • 20) night = ніч f
  • 21) star = зірка f
  • 22) sun = сонце n
  • 23) moon = місяць m
  • 24) earth/soil = земля f
  • 25) salt = сіль f
  • 26) mountain = гора f
  • 27) tree = дерево n
  • 28) rain = дощ m
  • 29) wind = вітер m
  • 30) bird = птах m
  • 31) flesh/meat = м’ясо n
  • 32) liver = печінка f
  • 33) skin/hide = шкіра/шкура f
  • 34) knee = коліно n
  • 35) breast/chest = груди pl
  • 36) person = людина/особа f
  • 37) man = чоловік m
  • 38) woman = жінка f
  • 39) child = дитина f
  • 40) hair = волосся n
  • 41) mouth = рот m
  • 42) neck = шия f
  • 43) foot/leg = нога f
  • 44) feather = перо n
  • 45) grease/fat = жир m
  • 46) smoke = дим m
  • 47) ash/soot = попіл m
  • 48) sand = пісок m
  • 49) wood = ліс m
  • 50) root = корінь m
  • 51) rope = мотузка f
  • 52) path/road = шлях m
  • 53) year = рік m

Дієслова:

  • 54) die = вмирати
  • 55) see = бачити
  • 56) hear = чути
  • 57) know = знати
  • 58) drink = пити
  • 59) give = давати
  • 60) come = приходити
  • 61) stand = стояти
  • 62) sit = сидіти
  • 63) lie down = лежати
  • 64) fly = літати
  • 65) eat = їсти
  • 66) bite = кусати
  • 67) burn = горіти
  • 68) kill = вбивати
  • 69) say = казати
  • 70) laugh = сміятися

Прикметники:

  • 71) new = новий
  • 72) full = повний
  • 73) good = гарний
  • 74) long = довгий
  • 75) red = червоний
  • 76) black = чорний
  • 77) white = білий
  • 78) green = зелений
  • 79) yellow = жовтий
  • 80) small/little = маленький
  • 81) big/large = великий
  • 82) wide = широкий
  • 83) heavy = важкий
  • 84) old = старий
  • 85) dry = сухий

Інше:

  • 86) I/me = я/мене
  • 87) you = ти, ви
  • 88) what = що
  • 89) who/whom = хто/кого
  • 90) a/one = -/один
  • 91) two = два
  • 92) not = ні
  • 93) this/these = цей/ці
  • 94) we/us = ми/нас
  • 95) all/everything/everyone = все/всі/кожний

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/GeniusJack

This is very interesting! Thank you very much!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

Oops, I started to pay you the lingots for the Danish list. Oh well, enjoy!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Itwas

Thanks a lot dude!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/OnesimusUnbound

Thanks. I'm familiar with Swadesh list, and this is the first time I've heard of Leipzig-Jakarta. Honestly, I like Leipzig-Jakarta list more than that of Swadesh.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

That makes two of us.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/OnesimusUnbound

95 Core Concepts in Filipino/Tagalog

Nouns:

  • 1 name = pangalan
  • 2 water = tubig
  • 3 blood = dugo
  • 4 fire = apoy
  • 5 stone/rock = bato
  • 6 dog = aso
  • 7 fish = isda
  • 8 louse/flea = kuto
  • 9 hand/arm = kamay/braso
  • 10 eye = mata
  • 11 ear = tainga (ta i nga)
  • 12 nose = ilong
  • 13 tongue = dila
  • 14 tooth = ngipin (ngi pin)
  • 15 bone = buto
  • 16 horn = sungay (su ngay)
  • 17 tail = buntot
  • 18 egg = itlog
  • 19 leaf = dahon
  • 20 night = gabi
  • 21 star = bituwin
  • 22 sun = araw
  • 23 moon = buwan
  • 24 earth/soil = lupa
  • 25 salt = asin
  • 26 mountain = bundok
  • 27 tree = puno
  • 28 rain = ulan
  • 29 wind = hangin (ha ngin)
  • 30 bird = ibon
  • 31 flesh/meat = karne/laman-loob
  • 32 liver = atay
  • 33 skin/hide = balat
  • 34 knee = tuhod
  • 35 breast = dibdib
  • 36 person = tao
  • 37 man = lalake
  • 38 woman = babae
  • 39 child = bata
  • 40 hair = buhok
  • 41 mouth = bibig
  • 42 neck = leeg (le eg)
  • 43 foot/leg = paa/hita
  • 44 feather = balahibo (NOTE: the word also applies to animal fur)
  • 45 grease/fat = taba/grasa
  • 46 smoke = usok
  • 47 ash/soot = abo
  • 48 sand = buhangin (bu ha ngin)
  • 49 wood = kahoy
  • 50 root = ugat
  • 51 rope = tali or lubid
  • 52 path/road = daanan (da a nan)/kalsada
  • 53 year = taon

Verbs: NOTE: Tagalog verb uses Austronesian alignment that is, the verb switches it's affixes when it will focus on the doer of the action, the receiver of the action, etc.

Listed are the root words for simplicity

  • 54 die = patay (precisely, mamatay)
  • 55 see = kita
  • 56 hear = dinig
  • 57 know = alam
  • 58 drink = inom
  • 59 give = bigay
  • 60 come = ❤❤❤❤❤
  • 61 stand = tayo
  • 62 sit = upo
  • 63 lie/recline = higa
  • 64 fly = lipad
  • 65 eat = kain
  • 66 bite = kagat
  • 67 burn = sunog
  • 68 kill = patay (precisely: pumatay)
  • 69 say = salita (precisely: magsalita)
  • 70 laugh = tawa

Adjectives:

  • 71 new = bago
  • 72 full = puno
  • 73 good = mabuti or magaling
  • 74 long = mahaba
  • 75 red = pula
  • 76 black = itim
  • 77 white = puti
  • 78 green = luntian or berde
  • 79 yellow = dilaw
  • 80 small = maliit (ma li it)
  • 81 big = malaki
  • 82 wide = malapad
  • 83 heavy = mabigat
  • 84 old = luma or matanda
  • 85 dry = tuyo

Other:

  • 86 I/me = ako/ko
  • 87 you = ikaw
  • 88 what = ano
  • 89 who/whom = sino/para kanino
  • 90 one = isa
  • 91 two = dalawa
  • 92 not = hindi
  • 93 this = ito
  • 94 we/us = kami/namin
  • 95 all = lahat

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Ryzll

11) ear - isn't it really 'tainga'? it only became 'tenga' because of our tendency to shorten words. 43) foot/leg - paa/hita 51) rope - tali or lubid 52) path/road - it could also be 'daan' and isn't road 'kalsada'?

for the verbs, maybe you should put the root words instead? 60) come - i think '❤❤❤❤❤' is also valid.

73) good - 'maganda' can be used sometimes. 84) old - luma or 'matanda'


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/OnesimusUnbound

Thanks for your review

11) ear - isn't it really 'tainga'? it only became 'tenga' because of our tendency to shorten words.

You're right, it's tainga

for the verbs, maybe you should put the root words instead?

At first, I prefer the root word, but when I try to translate "die" and "kill", it becomes confusing. Any suggestion?

60) come - i think '❤❤❤❤❤' is also valid.

switched to "pumunta". "dumating" is closer to arrive.

73) good - 'maganda' can be used sometimes.

I don't think so. Do you have any example?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Ryzll

well, "die" and "kill" have "patay" as their root word, but the conjugation becomes different when the tenses are incorporated. so maybe you can just say that as a footnote or something.

all i can think of is "magandang umaga". and also we say "maganda yan" for "that's good" instead of "mabuti yan". "mabuti yan" is also right but i think it sounds weird, and i only hear old people say that. lol


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/OnesimusUnbound

well, "die" and "kill" have "patay" as their root word, but the conjugation becomes different when the tenses are incorporated. so maybe you can just say that as a footnote or something.

Yeah, the root word is far simpler. I'll just add foot note.

all i can think of is "magandang umaga". and also we say "maganda yan" for "that's good" instead of "mabuti yan". "mabuti yan" is also right but i think it sounds weird, and i only hear old people say that. lol

Hmm, not bad. Anyway, the english word "good" can have many meaning, so yeah I'll take it.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Joseph1496

Hey men, tama yong mga translation mo. Wait there are a few ones though: 57.) know = laman. Diba know = alam?

sana meron ng Tagalog course soon. Para saan ba ito? I am more used to the Spanish translation for numbers, colors, places, objects but it is still understood. But this is a great work man. Thumbs up : )


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Ryzll

Hey Joseph, you're right! i also didn't notice number 57 lol


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/sebas

in Japanese

Nouns

  • 1) name = 名前 namae
  • 2) water = 水 mizu
  • 3) blood = 血 chi
  • 4) fire = 火 hi
  • 5) stone/rock = 石/岩 ishi/iwa
  • 6) dog = 犬 inu
  • 7) fish = 魚 sakana
  • 8) louse/flea = 虱/蚤 shirami/nomi
  • 9) hand/arm = 手/腕 te/ude
  • 10) eye = 目 me
  • 11) ear = 耳 mimi
  • 12) nose = 鼻 hana
  • 13) tongue = 舌 shita
  • 14) tooth = 歯 ha
  • 15) bone = 骨 hone
  • 16) horn = 角 tsuno
  • 17) tail = 尻尾 shippo
  • 18) egg = 卵 tamago
  • 19) leaf = 葉っぱ happa
  • 20) night = 夜 yoru
  • 21) star = 星 hoshi
  • 22) sun = 日 hi
  • 23) moon = 月 tsuki
  • 24) earth/soil = 土/地 tsuchi/chi
  • 25) salt = 塩 shio
  • 26) mountain = 山 yama
  • 27) tree = 木 ki
  • 28) rain = 雨 ame
  • 29) wind = 風 kaze
  • 30) bird = 鳥 tori
  • 31) flesh/meat = 身/肉 mi/niku
  • 32) liver = 肝 kimo
  • 33) skin/hide = 皮/革 kawa/kawa
  • 34) knee = 膝 hiza
  • 35) breast = 胸 mune
  • 36) person = 人 hito
  • 37) man = 男 otoko
  • 38) woman = 女 onna
  • 39) child = 子供 kodomo
  • 40) hair = 髪 kami
  • 41) mouth = 口 kuchi
  • 42) neck = 首 kubi
  • 43) foot/leg = 足/脚 ashi/ashi
  • 44) feather = 羽 hane
  • 45) grease/fat = 脂 abura
  • 46) smoke = 煙 kemuri
  • 47) ash/soot = 灰 hai
  • 48) sand = 砂 suna
  • 49) wood = 木 ki
  • 50) root = 根 ne
  • 51) rope = 綱 tsuna
  • 52) path/road = 道/路 michi/michi
  • 53) year = 年 toshi

Verbs

  • 54) die = 死ぬ shinu
  • 55) see = 見る miru
  • 56) hear = 聞く kiku
  • 57) know = 知る shiru
  • 58) drink = 飲む nomu
  • 59) give = 与える ataeru
  • 60) come = 来る kuru
  • 61) stand = 立つ tatsu
  • 62) sit = 座る suwaru
  • 63) lie/recline = 寝る neru
  • 64) fly = 飛ぶ tobu
  • 65) eat = 食べる/食う taberu/kuu
  • 66) bite = 噛む kamu
  • 67) burn = 燃える moeru
  • 68) kill = 殺す korosu
  • 69) say = 言う iu
  • 70) laugh = 笑う warau

Adjectives

  • 71) new = 新しい atarashii
  • 72) full = 満ちている michiteiru
  • 73) good = 良い yoi/ii
  • 74) long = 長い nagai
  • 75) red = 赤い akai
  • 76) black = 黒い kuroi
  • 77) white = 白い shiroi
  • 78) green = 青い aoi
  • 79) yellow = 黄色 kiiro
  • 80) small = 小さい chiisai
  • 81) big = 大きい ookii
  • 82) wide = 広い hiroi
  • 83) heavy = 重い omoi
  • 84) old = 古い furui
  • 85) dry = 乾いた kawaita

Other:

  • 86) I/me = 私/僕/俺 watashi/boku/ore
  • 87) you = 君/貴方 kimi/anata
  • 88) what = 何 nani
  • 89) who/whom = 誰 dare
  • 90) one = 一つ/一 hitotsu/ichi
  • 91) two = 二つ/二 futatsu/ni
  • 92) not = 無い nai
  • 93) this = 此れ kore
  • 94) we/us = 我々/私達 wareware/watashitachi
  • 95) all = 全て/皆 subete/minna

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

I think the most common forms for 90 and 91 would be 一 ichi and 二 ni. I'd include both.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/sebas

I preferred the Yamato words (訓読み) over the Sino-Japanese ones (音読み). There are quite a few words like ichi and hitotsu where two words of different origin coexist with slightly different usage: とし:ねん or にんげん:ひと or かんそう:かわいた . I had missed the yamato 身(mi from sashimi). Now every concept has at least one yamato word.

The reason for my preference was that the list is restricted to basic words anyway in order to show where a language comes from. It is not supposed to give a survey of the whole vocabulary and its historical development. I hope my bias was somewhat linguistically sound.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

That makes sense, but I wouldn't want the lists to be biased toward "native" words just to show "genetic" relationships among languages. I consider borrowing to be a perfectly valid form of language change, and if that obscures relationships, so be it. It strengthens other relationships. In this case, however, I think both forms ought to be listed, since they are both in common use.

About 身 mi though, I think ミート miito is probably a bit more common as a way to refer to meat. In any case, I'd list 肉 niku first. It doesn't hurt to list all three, but the most common/broad form should always go first (except perhaps in the case of gender/number distinctions, where you'll just want to be consistent).


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Jennifer.Kirby

does duolingo have a Japanese course, if not that would be awesome. I've tried learning from college text books on my own and no go.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

Update: Yes it does! https://www.duolingo.com/courses (Just in case you hadn't heard.)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

No Japanese course yet. I hear they'd like to, but it's not even really in development yet. Probably the writing system is a big hurdle. I'm anxious to see how they do with Russian. Cyrillic presents much less of a problem than kanji/kana, but it's still an issue. All the completed courses so far use the Roman alphabet.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Jennifer.Kirby

Yeah I could see the writing being a huge problem ... if theres a will theres a way :P. I want to learn all the languages if I can, any helpful tips


[deactivated user]

    Correct if wrong, if yellow were an adjective, wouldn't it 黄色い?


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/sebas

    Both forms are common. Either 黄色い as an い-adjective or 黄色 as an adjective noun.

    http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/cgi-bin/wwwjdic.cgi?1Q%B2%AB%BF%A7_0__


    [deactivated user]

      Learning from my mistakes. :p


      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DjoekeWentink

      In Dutch: 1) name = naam 2) water = water 3) blood = bloed 4) fire = vuur 5) stone/rock = steen 6) dog = hond 7) fish - vis 8) louse/flea = luis/vlooi 9) hand/arm = hand/arm 10) eye = oog 11) ear = oor 12) nose = neus 13) tongue =tong 14) tooth = tand 15) bone = bot 16) horn = hoorn 17) tail = staart 18) egg =ei 19) leaf = blad 20) night = nacht 21) star = ster 22) sun =zon 23) moon =maan 24) earth/soil = aarde 25) salt = zout 26) mountain = berg 27) tree = boom 28) rain = regen 29) wind = wind 30) bird = vogel 31) flesh/meat = vlees 32) liver = lever 33) skin/hide = huid/vel 34) knee = knie 35) breast = borst 36) person = persoon 37) man = man 38) woman = vrouw 39) child = kind 40) hair = haar 41) mouth = mond 42) neck = nek 43) foot/leg = voet/been 44) feather = veer 45) grease/fat = smeer/vet 46) smoke = rook 47) ash/soot = as/roet 48) sand = zand 49) wood = hout 50) root = wortel 51) rope = touw 52) path/road = pad/weg 53) year = jaar

      Verbs:

      54) die = sterven 55) see = zien 56) hear = horen 57) know =weten 58) drink= drinken 59) give = geven 60) come = komen 61) stand = staan 62) sit = zitten 63) lie/recline = liggen/leunen 64) fly =vliegen 65) eat = eten 66) bite = bijten 67) burn = branden 68) kill = doden 69) say = zeggen 70) laugh = lachen

      Adjectives:

      71) new = nieuw 72) full = vol 73) good = goed 74) long = lang 75) red = rood 76) black = zwart 77) white = wit 78) green = groen 79) yellow =geel 80) small = klein 81) big = groot 82) wide =wijd 83) heavy = zwaar 84) old = oud 85) dry droog

      Other:

      86) I/me = ik/mij 87) you = jij 88) what = wat 89) who/whom = wie 90) one = een 91) two = twee 92) not = niet 93) this = dit 94) we/us = wij/ons 95) all = iedereen


      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/joe5chu

      In Mandarin : 1) name 名字/姓名 míng zì /xìng míng 2) water 水 shuǐ 3) blood 血 xuè 4) fire 火 huǒ 5) stone/rock 石头/岩石 shí tóu /yán shí 6) dog 狗/犬 gǒu /quǎn 7) fish 鱼 yú 8) louse/flea 虱子/跳蚤 shī zǐ /tiào zǎo 9) hand/arm 手/手臂 shǒu /shǒu bì 10) eye 眼/眼睛 yǎn /yǎn jīng 11) ear 耳/耳朵 ěr /ěr duǒ 12) nose 鼻/鼻子 bí /bí zǐ 13) tongue 舌/舌头 shé /shé tóu 14) tooth 牙/牙齿 yá /yá chǐ 15) bone 骨/骨头 gǔ /gǔ tóu 16) horn 角 jiǎo 17) tail 尾巴 wěi bā 18) egg 蛋/卵 dàn /luǎn 19) leaf 叶子 yè zǐ 20) night 夜/晚上/夜晚 yè /wǎn shàng /yè wǎn 21) star 星/星星 xīng /xīng xīng 22) sun 日/太阳 rì /tài yáng 23) moon 月/月亮 yuè /yuè liàng 24) earth/soil 地球/土地/土壤 dì qiú /tǔ dì /tǔ rǎng 25) salt 盐 yán
      26) mountain 山 shān 27) tree 树 shù 28) rain 雨 yǔ 29) wind 风 fēng 30) bird 鸟 niǎo 31) flesh/meat 肉 ròu 32) liver 肝/肝脏 gān /gān zāng 33) skin/hide 皮肤/皮革 pí fū / pí gé 34) knee 膝盖 xī gài 35) breast 胸/乳房 xiōng/rǔ fáng 36) person 人 rén 37) man 男人 nán rén 38) woman 女人 nǚ rén 39) child 孩子/小孩 hái zǐ /xiǎo hái 40) hair 头发/毛发 tóu fā /máo fā 41) mouth 嘴/口/嘴巴 zuǐ /kǒu /zuǐ bā 42) neck 脖子 bó zǐ 43) foot/leg 脚/足/腿 jiǎo /zú /tuǐ 44) feather 羽毛 yǔ máo 45) grease/fat 油脂 yóu zhī 46) smoke 烟 yān 47) ash/soot 灰 huī 48) sand 沙 shā 49) wood 木/木头 mù /mù tóu 50) root 根 gēn 51) rope 绳/绳子 shéng /shéng zǐ 52) path/road 路 lù 53) year 年 nián Verbs:

      54) die 死 sǐ 55) see 看 kàn 56) hear 听 tīng 57) know 知道/了解/认识 zhī dào /liǎo jiě /rèn shí 58) drink 喝 hē 59) give 给 gěi 60) come 来 lái 61) stand 站 zhàn 62) sit 坐 zuò 63) lie/recline 躺 tǎng 64) fly 飞 fēi 65) eat 吃 chī 66) bite 咬 yǎo 67) burn 燃烧 rán shāo 68) kill 杀 shā 69) say 说 shuō 70) laugh 笑 xiào Adjectives:

      71) new 新 xīn 72) full 满 mǎn 73) good 好 hǎo 74) long 长 cháng 75) red 红 hóng 76) black 黑 hēi 77) white 白 bái 78) green 绿 lǜ 79) yellow 黄 huáng 80) small 小 xiǎo 81) big 大 dà 82) wide 宽 kuān 83) heavy 重 zhòng 84) old 老 lǎo 85) dry 干 gān Other:

      86) I/me 我 wǒ 87) you 你(singular)/你们(plural) nǐ /nǐ men 88) what 什么 shén me 89) who/whom 谁 shuí or shéi 90) one 一 yī 91) two 二/两 èr/liǎng 92) not 不 bú 93) this 这个/这 zhè gè/zhè 94) we/us 我们 wǒ men 95) all 全部/所有 quán bù /suǒ yǒu


      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jjd1123

      Thanks for making this list! Some small corrections and comments:

      27) tree is also 木 mù (even looks like a tree) or 树木 shù mù

      57) know 了解 is pronounced liǎo jiě

      87) additionally there are the formal variants 您 nín (singular) and 您们 nín men (plural)

      91) also: two 两 liǎng (e.g. when counting)

      92) not is simply 不 (不是 is not be, but can sometimes be used similarly to not or no in English, e.g. in an answer), or 没 měi (especially when negating 有 yǒu (have) or talking about past events)

      93) "this" can also be simply 这 zhè (这个 could be seen as "this one", depending on context)

      95) additionally you could use for all: 都 dōu / 大家 dà jiā


      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/joe5chu

      多谢纠正! 给你 5 个邻角~


      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

      Wow, what an amazing response! I'm almost out of lingots from paying all the contributors!


      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

      Hah, thanks for the help! With more coming in all the time, I had to go from 10 lingots each down to 5. If you see any posted lists that seem to be lacking in lingots, feel free to remedy that!


      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ACatterpillar

      Lingua Latina!
      NOTE - This list will only make sense to someone who has basic knowledge of the Latin system of declensions and conjugations. If you have no idea what I mean, go to Latin Grammar.

      Vocabuli:
      1) nomen, nominis, n. 

      2) aqua, aquae, f. 

      3) sanguis, sanguinis, m. 

      4) ardor, ardoris, m. 

      5) saxum, saxi, n. 

      6) canis, canis, m./f.
      
7) pisces, pisces, m. 

      8) pulex, pulicis, m.
      
9) manus, manus, f. / bracchium, bracchii, n. 

      10) oculus, oculi, m. 

      11) auris, auris, f. 

      12) nasus, nasi, m. 

      13) lingua, linguae, f. 

      14) dens, dentis, m.
      
15) ossum, ossi, n. 

      16) cornu, cornus, n.
      
17) cauda, caudae, f. 

      18) ovum, ovi, n. 

      19) folium, folii, n. 

      20) nox, nocis, f.
      
21) stella, stellae, f.
      
22) sol, solis, m.
      
23) luna, lunae, f. 

      24) terra, terrae, f.
      
25) sal, salis, m. 

      26) mons, montis, m. 

      27) arbor, arboris, f. 

      28) pluvia, pluviae, f. 

      29) ventus, ventus, f. 

      30) avis, avis, f. 

      31) carnis, carnis, f.
      
32) jecur, jecoris, n. 

      33) pellis, pellis, f. 

      34) ancala, ancalae, f. 

      35) pectusculum, pectusculi, n. 

      36) persona, personae, f. 

      37) vir, viri, m. 

      38) femina, feminae, f. 

      39) nata, natae, f. 

      40) capillus, capilli, m. 

      41) os, oris, m. 

      42) collum, colli, n. 

      43) pes, pedis, m. / crus, cruris, n.
      
44) pluma, plumae, f. 

      45) pingue, pinguis, n. / arbilla, arbillae, f. 

      46) fumus, fumi, m.
      
47) cinis, cineris, m./f. / fuligo, fulginis, f. 

      48) pulvis, pulveris, m. 

      49) boscus, bosci, m. 

      50) radix, radicis, f. 

      51) funis, funis, m. 

      52) via, viae, f. 

      53) annus, anni, m.

      Verbi:
      
54) expiro, epirare, expiravi, expiratus 

      55) video, videre, vidi, visus
      
56) audio, audire, audivi, auditus
      
57) scio, scire, scivi, scitus 

      58) bibo, bibere, bibi, bibitus 

      59) do, dare, dedi, datus 

      60) venio, venire, veni, ventus 

      61) sto, stare, steti, status
      
62) sedo, sedere, sedi, sessus 

      63) jaceo, jacere, jacui, jacitus 

      64) volo, volare, volavi, volatus 

      65) comedo, comedere, comedi, comestus 

      66) mordeo, mordere, momordi, morsus 

      67) aduro, adurere, adussi, adustus 

      68) occido, occidere, occidi, occisus 

      69) dico, dicere, dixi, dictus 

      70) irrideo, irridere, irrisi, irrisus

      Epitheti:
      
71) novus, nova, novum
      
72) cumulatus, cumulata, cumulatum
      
73) bonus, bona, bonum
      
74) longus, longa, longum
      
75) ruber, rubra, rubrum 

      76) morulus, morula, morulum 

      77) albus, alba, album 

      78) virens, virentis 

      79) fulvus, fulva, fulvum 

      80) parvus, parva, parvum 

      81) magnus, magna, magnum 

      82) diffusus, diffusa, diffusum 

      83) gravatus, grava, gravatum
      
84) veter, vetera, veterum 

      85) siccus, sicca, siccum

      Conjectanei:
      
86) ego (irregular)
      
87) tu (irregular) 

      88) qui, quae, quod 

      89) qui, quae, quod 

      90) unus, una, unum
      
91) duo (indeclinable) 

      92) nolo, nolle, nolui, - ; non ; ne 

      93) hic, haec, hoc
      
94) nos (irregular) 

      95) omnia


      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rafeind

      Icelandic:

      Nouns:
      1) name nafn (n)
      2) water vatn (n)
      3) blood blóð (n)
      4) fire eldur (m)
      5) stone/rock steinn (m)/ klettur (m)
      6) dog hundur (m)
      7) fish fiskur (m)
      8) louse/flea lús (f)/ fló (f)
      9) hand/arm hönd (f)/ handleggur (m)/ armur (m)
      10) eye auga (n)
      11) ear eyra (n)
      12) nose nef (n)
      13) tongue tunga (f)
      14) tooth tönn (f)
      15) bone bein (n)
      16) horn horn (n)
      17) tail skott (n)/ rófa (f)/ hali (m)/ sporður (m)/ stél (n)/ tagl (n)/ dindill (m)
      18) egg egg (n)
      19) leaf lauf (n)
      20) night/evening nótt (f)/ kvöld (n)
      21) star stjarna (f)
      22) sun sól (f)/ sunna (f)
      23) moon tungl (n)/ máni (m)
      24) earth/soil jörð (f)/ jarðvegur (m)/ mold (f)
      25) salt salt (n)
      26) mountain fjall (n)/ fell (n)
      27) tree tré (n)
      28) rain regn (n)/ rigning (f)
      29) wind vindur (m)
      30) bird fugl (m)
      31) flesh/meat hold (n)/ kjöt (n)
      32) liver lifur (f)
      33) skin/hide húð (f)/ skinn (n)
      34) knee hné (n)
      35) breast/chest brjóst (n)/ bringa (f)
      36) person manneskja (f)/ persóna (f)
      37) man maður (m)
      38) woman kona (f)
      39) child barn (n)
      40) hair hár (n)
      41) mouth munnur (m)
      42) neck háls (m)
      43) foot/leg fótur (m)/ fótleggur (m)
      44) feather fjöður (f)
      45) grease/fat fita (f)
      46) smoke reykur (m)
      47) ash/soot aska (f)/ sót (n)
      48) sand sandur (m)
      49) wood viður (m)
      50) root rót (f)
      51) rope reipi (n)/ kaðall (m)
      52) path/road slóð (f)/ stígur (n)/ vegur (n)
      53) year ár (n)

      All nouns in nominative singular.
      There is no one word for tail in icelandic, I did not include lot of words with subtle differences in meaning for other words (it is f.ex. possible for wind and earth/soil) because these are the basic ones, but there is no one word for tail so that one is stuck with seven different words.

      Verbs:
      54) die deyja/drepast
      55) see/look/watch sjá/horfa
      56) hear heyra
      57) know vita/kunna/þekkja
      58) drink drekka
      59) give gefa
      60) come koma
      61) stand standa
      62) sit sitja
      63) lie down leggjast
      64) fly fljúga
      65) eat borða/éta
      66) bite bíta
      67) burn brenna
      68) kill drepa
      69) say/tell/speak/talk segja/tala/ræða
      70) laugh hlæja

      Verbs are in the infinitive.

      Adjectives:
      71) new nýr
      72) full fullur
      73) good/well góður
      74) long langur
      75) red rauður
      76) black svartur
      77) white hvítur
      78) green grænn
      79) yellow gulur
      80) small/little lítill/smár
      81) big/large stór
      82) wide víður/breiður
      83) heavy þungur
      84) old gamall
      85) dry þurr

      Adjectives are in the positive, nominative, singular, masculine, strong declension since that is the form used by dictionaries. Theoretically every adjective has 120 forms, but I think that in reality the number of different forms is around 30 - 40. (Table with every form for nýr: http://bin.arnastofnun.is/leit/?q=n%C3%BDr, this website can give you every form of every word with more than one form in Icelandic.)

      Other:
      86) I/me ég
      87) you þú/þið
      88) what/which/that hvað/það/sem/er
      89) who/whom hver/sá/sem/er
      90) one einn
      91) two tveir
      92) not ekki
      93) this/these þessi
      94) we/us við
      95) all/every/everything/everyone allir/hver einasti

      Everything in nominative and in singular and/or masculine where it makes sense. Except ekki, sem and er which do not decline at all, þið which is plural and I included just to make clear that we differentiate between the plural and the singular forms and hvað/það which is neuter so that #88 and #89 aren't the same. (Yes the neutral form of sá is það.)
      This section kind of looks like there are more forms of these words in English, (I consider I and me the same word) which is not true but I decided to just have one form of every word. I also kind of consider #88 and #89 the same, I put the neuter form for #88 but in my mind there is bigger difference between what and that, than between what and who.


      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

      Wow, very detailed! Thanks!


      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rafeind

      I wasn't sure how to deal with the personal pronouns, I saw that a lot of people put two forms for I and two forms for you even before we consider plural, but I could not do it for the pronouns and not for the nouns. And eight forms for every noun was a bit too much.


      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

      In general, giving the base form of nouns and verbs should suffice. For pronouns, demonstratives, and such, the different forms are a bit harder to predict, so I've been listing them all, as long as that wouldn't result in a totally ridiculous amount.

      We want the lists to be consistent across languages, but that's obviously easier said than done. It looks like you've done a pretty good job to me. Thanks again!


      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rafeind

      It was fun to do.


      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jack_waugh

      "too much"; sorry to nitpick.


      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rafeind

      And I should know this and still get it wrong every other time. I don't know why I can never remember it.

      Fixed it.


      [deactivated user]

        Taking the liberty of doing this list in Maltese. Natives or high-level learners please correct me if wrong, I got these translations from my dictionary app and this website: http://aboutmalta.com/language/engmal.htm#r and checked them on Wiktionary so plural forms and genders may be missing:

        • 1) name = l-isem (m)/ l-ismijiet (pl)
        • 2) water = l-ilma (m)
        • 3) blood = tad-dem
        • 4) fire = in-nar (m) / in-nirien (pl)
        • 5) stone/rock = il-ġebla (f)/ il-ġebel (pl)
        • 6) dog = il-kelb (m) / il-klieb (pl)
        • 7) fish = il-ħuta (m) / il-ħut (pl)
        • 8) louse/flea = il-bergħud (m)/ il-briegħed (pl)
        • 9) hand/arm = l-id (m, hand) l-idejn (pl, hands)/ il-driegħ (m, arm)
        • 10) eye = l-għan (f)/ l-għajnejn (pl)
        • 11) ear = il-widna (f)/ il-widnejn (pl)
        • 12) nose = il-mnieħer (m)
        • 13) tongue = il-lsien (m)/ l-ilsna (pl) *This also means tongue as in language.
        • 14) tooth = is-sinna (f)/ is-snien (pl)
        • 15) bone = l-għadma (f)/l-għadmiet (pl)
        • 16) horn = l-horn (m) or il-qran (m)/ il-qrun (pl)
        • 17) tail = id-denb (m)
        • 18) egg = il-bajda (f)/ il-bajd (pl) *This appearently is also slang for testicles
        • 19) leaf = il-werqa (f)/ il-weraq (pl)
        • 20) night/evening = il-lejl (m, night) l-iljieli (pl, night)/ il-filgħaxija (f?)
        • 21) star = il-kewkba (f)
        • 22) sun = ix-xmex (f)
        • 23) moon = l-qamar (m)/ l-qmura (pl)
        • 24) earth/soil = id-dinja (f), ld-dinjiet (pl)/ il-ħamrija (f) or l-art (f)
        • 25) salt = il-melh (m), il-mluħ (pl)
        • 26) mountain = il-muntanja (f)
        • 27) tree = is-sigra (f)
        • 28) rain = ix-xita (f)
        • 29) wind = ir-rih (m)
        • 30) bird = l-għasfur (m), l-għasafar (pl)
        • 31) flesh/meat = il-laħam (m)
        • 32) liver = il-fwied (m), l-ifwda (pl)
        • 33) skin/hide = il-ġilda (f), il- ġlud (pl)
        • 34) knee = ir-rkoppa (f)
        • 35) breast/chest = is-sider (m, chest) l-isdra (pl, chests)/ iz-zejza (f, breast)
        • 36) person = il-persuna (f)
        • 37) man/male = ir-raġel (m, both man and male), l-irġel (pl, both man and male)
        • 38) woman/female = il-mara (f), in-nisa (pl)
        • 39) child/son/daughter l-iben (m, son)/ il-bint (f, daughter)/ it-tifel (m, child), it-tifela (f), l-itfal (pl)
        • 40) hair = ix-xgħar (m)
        • 41) mouth = il-ħalq (m) , il-ħluq (pl) *Also means opening
        • 42) neck = il-għonq (m), il- għenuq (pl)
        • 43) foot/leg = is-sieq (m, foot and leg) , is-saqajn (pl, feet and legs)
        • 44) feather = ir-rixa (f), ir-rix (pl)
        • 45) grease/fat = il-grass (m, grease) / ix-xaħam (m, fat) *l-ohxon is fat for a person
        • 46) smoke = id-duħħan (m)
        • 47) ash/soot = l-irmied (pl)
        • 48) sand = ir-ramel (m),
        • 49) wood = l-injama (f)
        • 50) root = il-għerq (m)
        • 51) rope = il-ħabel (m)
        • 52) path/road = it-triq (f)
        • 53) year = is-sena (f)

        Adjectives (Note: These are the masculine forms)

        • 71) new = ġdid
        • 72) full = mimli
        • 73) good/well = tajjeb
        • 74) long = twil
        • 75) red = aħmar
        • 76) black = iswed
        • 77) white = abjad
        • 78) green = aħdar
        • 79) yellow = isfar
        • 80) small/little = żgħir
        • 81) big/large = kbir
        • 82) wide = wiesa
        • 83) heavy = tqil
        • 84) old = xih
        • 85) dry = niexef

        Others

        • 86) I/me = Jien or Jiena (also I am)/ -ni (a direct object suffix for the verb that means me)
        • 87) you = Int or Inti (also you are)/ -k, -ok, -ek (a direct object suffix for the verb that means you)
        • 88) what/which/that = Xi or X (both mean what but X goes in front of a word that start with a vowel, għ, or h)/ liema (which)/ dak (m) or dik (f) both mean that
        • 89) who/whom = Min
        • 90) a/one = *There is no indefinite article in Maltese. The number one is wiehed
        • 91) two = tnejn
        • 92) not = Ma or m' before the verb (m' before vowel or għ or h) and x after it.
        • 93) this/these = dan (m) and din (f) both mean this/ dawn (f) and dawk (m) both mean these
        • 94) we/us = aħna (also means we are)/ -na (direct object suffix for the verb meaning us)
        • 95) all/every/everything/everyone = kollox (everything)/ kulħad (everyone)/ kull (every)/ ilkoll (all) I will be back to do the rest if no one beats me to it...it's pretty exhausting to type all this out

        https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

        Somebody help her out! :)


        [deactivated user]

          Updated with the Others and Adjective sections. I will do Verbs, as soon as possible :)


          https://www.duolingo.com/profile/gonewiththesea

          In Slovene

          Nouns:
          1) name - ime
          2) water - voda
          3) blood - kri
          4) fire - ogenj
          5) stone/rock – kamen/skala
          6) dog - pes
          7) fish - riba
          8) louse/flea – uš/bolha
          9) hand/arm – dlan/roka
          10) eye - oko
          11) ear - uho
          12) nose -nos
          13) tongue - jezik
          14) tooth - zob
          15) bone - kost
          16) horn - rog
          17) tail - rep
          18) egg - jajce
          19) leaf - list
          20) night/evening – noč/večer
          21) star - zvezda
          22) sun - sonce
          23) moon - luna
          24) earth/soil – zemlja/prst
          25) salt - sol
          26) mountain - gora
          27) tree - drevo
          28) rain - dež
          29) wind - veter
          30) bird - ptica
          31) flesh/meat - meso
          32) liver - jetra
          33) skin/hide - koža
          34) knee - koleno
          35) breast/chest – dojka/prsa
          36) person/human – oseba/človek
          37) man/male – mož/moški
          38) woman/female - ženska
          39) child/son/daughter – otrok/sin/hči
          40) hair - lasje
          41) mouth - usta
          42) neck - vrat
          43) foot/leg – stopalo/noga
          44) feather - pero
          45) grease/fat – mast/maščoba
          46) smoke - dim
          47) ash/soot – pepel/saje
          48) sand - pesek
          49) wood - gozd
          50) root - korenina
          51) rope - vrv
          52) path/road – pot/cesta
          53) year - leto

          Verbs:
          54) die - umreti
          55) see/look/watch – videti/gledati/opazovati
          56) hear - slišati
          57) know - vedeti
          58) drink - piti
          59) give - dati
          60) come - priti
          61) stand - stati
          62) sit - sedeti
          63) lie down - ležati
          64) fly - leteti
          65) eat - jesti
          66) bite - gristi
          67) burn - goreti
          68) kill - ubiti
          69) say/tell/speak/talk – reči/povedati/govoriti/pogovarjati se, govoriti
          70) laugh - smejati

          Adjectives (all in male form):
          71) new - nov
          72) full - poln
          73) good/well - dober
          74) long - dolg
          75) red - rdeč
          76) black - črn
          77) white - bel
          78) green - zelen
          79) yellow - rumen
          80) small/little - majhen
          81) big/large - velik
          82) wide - širok
          83) heavy - težek
          84) old - star
          85) dry - suh

          Other:
          86) I/me – jaz/meni, mene,... (depends on the case)
          87) you - ti
          88) what/which/that – kaj/kateri/tisti
          89) who/whom – kdo/kogar
          90) a/one - /en
          91) two - dva
          92) not – ne (not the best translation, but there isn't a word for not)
          93) this/these – ta/ti
          94) we/us – mi/nam, nas (again depends on the case)
          95) all/every/everything/everyone - vse, ves/vsak/vse/vsak, vsakdo


          https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

          I just added word lists for the dialects of the constructed language I created for my book Adelaide in Ozghard: Yomba, Gowee, Calda, and Yili. Check them out!


          https://www.duolingo.com/profile/tinitajones

          Thanks for the work!


          https://www.duolingo.com/profile/GaloCuevas

          Great post for conlangers man. Thanks!


          https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CliffJonesJr

          Thanks! That was a big part of my intention.


          https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DanielleRaven

          This list is exactly what I've been looking for. Thanks so much for this!

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