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95 Core Concepts in Dutch

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What are the most basic, elementary, core concepts that virtually all languages express? Many linguists have put a great deal of effort into answering this question, and several short word lists have come out of it. The most famous are probably the Swadesh lists, based mostly on intuition and refined over time. Later lists like the Leipzig-Jakarta have used more stringent methods to determine which vocabulary items are most resistant to borrowing and change over time.

What I've done here is taken five such word lists (Swadesh 100, Ranked Swadesh 40, Swadesh-Yakhontov, Leipzig-Jakarta, and Woodward) and kept only the items that occur in at least two of the lists. Here is the Dutch version. Enjoy!

Abbreviations:
c = common gender ("de")
n = neuter gender ("het")

Nouns:
1) name = naam (c)
2) water = water (n)
3) blood = bloed (n)
4) fire = vuur (n)
5) stone/rock = steen (c), rots (c)
6) dog = hond (c)
7) fish = vis (c)
8) louse/flea = luis (c), vlo (c)
9) hand/arm = hand (c), arm (c)
10) eye = oog (n)
11) ear = oor (n)
12) nose = neus (c)
13) tongue = tong (c)
14) tooth = tand (c)
15) bone = bot (n)
16) horn = hoorn (c)
17) tail = staart (c)
18) egg = ei (n)
19) leaf = blad (n)
20) night/evening = nacht (c), avond (c)
21) star = ster (c)
22) sun = zon (c)
23) moon = maan (c)
24) earth/soil = aarde (c), bodem (c)
25) salt = zout (n)
26) mountain = berg (c)
27) tree = boom (c)
28) rain = regen (c)
29) wind = wind (c)
30) bird = vogel (c)
31) flesh/meat = vlees (n)
32) liver = lever (c)
33) skin/hide = huid (c), vel (n)
34) knee = knie (c)
35) breast/chest = borst (c)
36) person/human = persoon (c), mens (c)
37) man = man (c)
38) woman = vrouw (c)
39) child = kind (n)
40) hair/fur = haar (n), pels (c)
41) mouth = mond (c)
42) neck = nek (c)
43) foot/leg = voet (c), been (n)
44) feather = veer (c), pluim (c)
45) grease/fat = vet (n), smeer (n)
46) smoke = rook (c)
47) ash/soot = as (c), roet (n)
48) sand = zand (n)
49) wood = hout (n)
50) root = wortel (c)
51) rope/cord = touw (n), koord (n)
52) path/road = pad (n), weg (c)
53) year = jaar (n)

Verbs:
54) die = sterven, doodgaan
55) see/look/watch = zien, kijken
56) hear/listen = horen, luisteren
57) know = weten, kennen
58) drink = drinken
59) give = geven
60) come = komen
61) stand = staan
62) sit/set = zitten
63) lie/lay = liggen, leggen
64) fly = vliegen
65) eat = eten
66) bite = bijten
67) burn = branden
68) kill = doden, vermoorden
69) say = zeggen, vertellen, spreken, praten
70) laugh = lachen

Adjectives:
71) new = nieuw
72) full = vol
73) good = goed
74) long = lang
75) red = rood
76) black = zwart
77) white = wit
78) green = groen
79) yellow = geel
80) small/little = klein
81) big/large = groot
82) wide/broad = wijd, breed
83) heavy = zwaar
84) old = oud
85) dry = droog

Other:
86) I/me = ik/me/mij
87) you = je/jij/jou, u, jullie
88) what/which = wat, welke
89) who/whom = wie
90) one/a/an = een, één
91) two = twee
92) not/no = niet, nee
93) this/these = dit/deze
94) we/us = we/wij/ons
95) all/everything/everyone = al/alle, alles, allemaal, iedereen

Please let me know if you spot any mistakes here. And if you take this list and translate it into another language, that would be awesome! I'd be sure to give you some lingots! More versions can be found here. (Be sure to check what's been translated already before posting your own.) And if you like this kind of thing, check out my website for more!

Update: A second set of concepts is translated into Dutch here!

4 years ago

3 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Lwb_monster

Wow so nice! It must be really useful and helpful!想必是好极了!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SalahddinE

to go = gaan, to have = hebben, are also very important verbs why aren't these included?

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr
CliffJonesJr
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I think I explained this in the first couple of paragraphs. Those words seem pretty "core" to me too, but apparently they don't quite get into the top 95 based on the cross-linguistic criteria used by Swadesh et al. Check out the follow-up list though! It has those plus several more useful verbs.

4 years ago
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