Could this also mean "where do you stand" as in "what is your point of view on this topic"?
Yes, but it would be far more common to ask "hvad er din holdning".
Is "står" used in a similar manner as "staan" is in Dutch? Could this also mean, "Where are you?"
"Hvor er du" = 'where are you' does not say anything about standing, so not as precise a translation.