"Did you follow any of that at all?"
Translation:Você seguiu alguma coisa daquilo?
No, a Portuguese speaker probably wouldn't. You could maybe use "acompanhar" instead of "follow" I suppose, and you'd at least have a better chance of us getting it. Your suggestion/question sentence needs a small correction:
"Você entendeu alguma coisa (disso/daquilo/que ele falou)?"
There are many possible optional words I could put in those parentheses. You could also say something like "does that make sense?" (faz sentido?) =]
We don't use "seguir" as it is used in English in this sentence (understand--usually a line of thought), so it doesn't make sense to us. "Qualquer de tudo isso" isn't used either, it seems incomplete. You could say "você entendeu alguma coisa daquilo?" (did you understand any of that?) in normal conversation, but in the wild we'd probably just say something like "entendeu?" (did you understand?). I hope it helps! =]