Would you be able to use "genoeg" instead of "voldoende"? If not, why so?
Genoeg means enough and voldoende means sufficient so they are not synonymous
Considering the translations of "voor" both as a preposition as well as an adverb I am pretty sure "voor de winter" can be translated to "before the winter". Does anybody agree with me?
No, there is actually a way to show the difference. "Before the winter" would be translated as "vóór de winter" to distinguish it from "for".