Specifically carrots and next to that the roots of all plants and trees, you can only know from context whether carrots or plant roots are meant. And square root is wortel as well, but there won't be many contexts where this can be mixed up with the food or plant root meaning. :) And it's used methaforically as well: Mijn wortels liggen in Utrecht = My roots are in Utrecht.
- radish = radijs
- beet = biet (e.g. rode biet and suikerbiet)
- cassava = cassave / broodwortel / maniok
- ginger = gember
Both plurals are grammatically correct, but which one you actually use depends on the context:
∆ When referring to the vegetable or the roots of something (such as a square root), only wortels is correct.
∆ When referring to the origin of something, only wortels is used.
∆ When referring to the vegetable or the roots of a plant, both wortels and wortelen are fine.
∆ When referring to the cause of something, again, both wortels and wortelen are correct.
Hope this helps!
Sorry but this is incorrect and is not what the link says either.
The link says both carrots aswell as the roots of plants kan be wortels or wortelen.
The mathematical root can only be wortels, same for your descent.
And that is correct.
(And you are contradicting yourself in your text too "when refering to the vegetable only wortels is correct" "when refering to the vegetable both wortels and wortelen are fine")
The link doesn't specify this but also the root of words can only be wortels.
Vandale is good but not perfect. So before I clicked the link I assumed it had errors. If you want to be certain about something go to woordenlijst.org they are they ultimate authority. (compiled by the language institution) what they say goes.