"My husband is a researcher."
Translation:Mio marito è un ricercatore.
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Yes...it should work...theoretically. The difference of nuance is between: what is his profession (or even who is he, asking about a characteristic) and what does he do for work. Your sentence: he does the work/job of the researcher. Conversely, the other sentence says: he is the researcher.
If I may offer a time when this answer would be correct and when concurrently yours would be incorrect to use, it would be in response to this question: who is one of the researchers on this project? "My husband is a researcher (on this project)."
In this case, it would sound a bit off to reply with: "My husband works as a researcher" or "my husband does the work of a researcher."
The correct answer uses the copula verb (to be) to give a defining characteristic about the person, making "researcher" a predicate nominative. Your answer tells us what he does, how he functions, the actions he does, making it a direct object of the verb "fare." Grammatically, there is a rather substantial difference. Practically, there is only a slight nuance.
I wrote that and it was marked wrong. Let's report it unless someone disagrees. I thought it works like this.
Use definite article in italian for: My husband is the researcher (not you; of this project; in this building, etc.) Don't use any article in italian for: My husband is a researcher (as a job)
Definite articles are not used with individual (ie singular) members of the family. (But they are in the plural! So eg "mio figlio", but "i miei figli")
Obviously you are never going to have more than one husband or wife; it is always "mio marito" without the "il", and "mia moglie" without the "la".