It's not common (and I'd imagine Americans never use it), but it is used in the UK - I've heard my grandparents say it before.
Normal people: "I like coffee like this" Formal: "I like such coffee"
"I don't like things like this" / "I dislike such things"
A few instances of it still sound much more natural - e.g. "I've done no such thing" vs "I have not done anything like that"
I don't think so, it simply means such or that kind of. Imagine somebody drank a large cup of coffee really quickly and somebody else said: "Wow you drank that quickly!" this sentence then would be the reply of the coffee drinker. To me (native Dutch speaker) the sentence sounds normal both in Dutch and English.
Of course, "I love this coffee" tells the listener you like only that one, whereas "I like this kind (sort) of coffee" or "I like such coffee" tells the listener that you like the coffees of a particular category (dark, expensive, Indonesian, who knows). I think I hear this use of "such" more in a negative context ("I never drink such things") or with an adjective for specificity (How do you drink such bitter coffee?").
As I understand it, the pronunciation is always hou, except possibly when a word follows that starts with a vowel. The point about (in)formality is that the spelling is still in the process of being updated accordingly. In such cases it's normal that the new spelling first becomes formal, then antiquated, and then obsolete.
The text you cite even says that writing the d can make reading harder. That statement wouldn't make any sense if the d were actually spoken. Rather, since Dutch has very regular phonetic spelling, readers have to be careful not to pronounce it - which would be a mistake in most readers' normal pronunciation..
Okay, this is all a bit confusing. I understand now that "hou" is the normal, most common pronunciation and the one which non-natives should learn, but I'm still not sure if there are circumstances when [t] actually is pronounced.
I listened to pronunciations of "Ik houd van jou" here (http://forvo.com/word/ik_houd_van_jou/), and while two of them clearly say "hou", the third one (Arie) does seem to pronounce the [t].
And I must say I don't understand why using the "houd" form would make reading harder. Even if Dutch people pronounce it "hou", you'd think they'd be used to seeing "houd" in writing.