"Gestern, heute, morgen"
Translation:Yesterday, today, tomorrow
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No, they're adverbs, not nouns -- in English and German both.
They tell us when something happened: yesterday, we went to the park. You say "on yesterday, we", not "on the yesterday". Even this little snippet expands to "on yesterday, on today, on tomorrow".
Now and again they get converted to nouns: "all our yesterdays have lighted fools the way to dusty death", but you can tell because you can use an article with them: "the yesterdays have lighted" -- "die Gestern beleuchtet" (I think...)
(Thanks for asking, it made wonder too, and figure it out)
In German the first letter of a noun is capitalized. So these are actually two different words:
(der) Morgen = (the) morning [NOUN]
morgen = tomorrow [ADVERB]