"I sleep every night."
Translation:Ik slaap elke nacht.
Surely elke nacht slaap ik would be grammatical but what comes first tends to set the topic of the sentence. In the given form it is a statement about what I do because it starts with Ik. When you start it with "Elke nacht" you are saying what happens every night. Every night (each night) becomes the topic. In short, the emphasis is changed because the topic has changed. Such a sentence might be extended "elke nacht slaap ik en werkt mijne vrouw" That is unambiguously about what happens each night rather than what I do. (if I have the grammar right. If not please correct me)
Not really, nacht is later than avond. Actually avond and nacht are a lot more straight forward than in English:
- midnight to 6 = nacht
- 6 to noon = ochtend, morgen
- noon to 6 = middag*
- 6 to midnight = evening
Middag is a bit more complicated, because this can mean both noon and afternoon. Noon is more common in Belgium, afternoon more common in the Netherlands.
So in the Netherlands: middag = noon to 6 voormiddag = not really used I think, if it is, then probably noon to 3 namiddag = 3 to 6
In Belgium: middag = noon voormiddag = ochtend = 6 to noon namiddag = noon to 6
Dutch isn't really a combination of English and German - all three are Germanic languages, and were once a very long time ago one language. Dutch seems like it's between English and German because some sounds changed from the original mother languages in German that did not change in Dutch and English - thus 'Water (en)', 'Water (nl)', 'Wasser (de)'.
Also, Dutch and English both were under a lot of French influence - hence 'gratis' (from Latin) and 'interessante' (directly from French).
'Nacht', on the other hand, is actually a direct descendant of Proto-Indo-European, the mother language of all the Germanic languages, as well as Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, Russian, and nearly all the languages of Europe, Iran, Afghanistan, and the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. (I think the only non-Indo-European languages you can study on Duolingo are Hungarian and Turkish right now!). For example 'night' in Latin is 'nox', Sanskrit is 'nakti', Russian is 'nočʹ', Irish is 'anocht', etc. etc.