E vs ED

what is the difference between e and ed? also o and oppure? im confused, are they interchangeable?

October 7, 2014


"Ed" is used when a vowel in present for example "Lui ed io mangiamo insieme" like in english "a" and "an"

October 7, 2014

To clarify this further, use ed between the first noun and another noun beginning with a vowel.

  • aglio ed olio

  • sale e pepe (the second noun does not begin with a vowel)

  • pane ed acqua

  • computer e tastiera; but: computer ed orologio

October 8, 2014

So ed between nouns. What about articles before nouns? e.g. Era arrivata con la figlia e il marito? Could you use "ed" here or no?

April 20, 2019

there is no difference between "o" and "oppure" they mean the same thing.

October 7, 2014

This may be completely incorrect, but my understanding based on other things I have read, is that "oppure" is somehow more forceful of the distinction tha "o". I imagine the translation of "o" to be "or", whereas "oppure" would be "or instead". The former would be used in a sentence like, "I feel like eating a pizza or (o) a sandwich", and the latter would be used in a sentence like, "Would you like me to wear the green dress, or (oppure) the red dress".

This is kind of like in programming, the difference between "OR", where an outcome is true if either of the conditions are true, and "XOR" (exclusive OR), where an outcome is true if one, but not the other of the conditions is true.

I'm not sure if I've expressed the distinction well, and hopefully I haven't totally made this up in my mind.

October 8, 2014

It is very interesting your point of view CtrlZED and I like your language programming "metaphor" :) But your distinction does not always fit.

There is no difference between "o" or "oppure" in the meaning. The only difference is the following: when you see "oppure", you can substitute it with "o", but it is not the same for "o", when you see "o" you cannot always substitute it with "oppure".

I'll make some examples:

  • adesso o mai più --> now or never (you could not say "adesso oppure mai più", grammaticaly it is not incorrect, but it sounds awful and also is too long).

  • prendere o lasciare --> take it or leave it (the same as before)

  • o sì o no --> yes or no (you repeat "o...o", when you want to put more emphasis and force someone to make a choice, and you cannot do it with "oppure").

It is true that "oppure" means "or instead", but how I have said you can always substitute it with "o" and the meaning does not change.

  • O sono io che non capisco oppure/o sei tu che spieghi male. --> Either I don't understand or you explain badly.

  • Mi prendo una pizza oppure/o un panino? --> Shall I take a pizza or a sandwich?

To sum up, "o" and "oppure" are nearly the same. So don't worry about it. Anyway, I don't think you will make a mistake, because the meaning is almost equivalent. Just keep in your mind that "o" fits everywhere, so you can use it without problems :)

Sorry for my english mistakes :) Good afternoon to everyone :)

October 8, 2014

Thanks very much for the detailed explanation! Turns out you can't believe everything you read :)

October 8, 2014

why did duolingo write the following using e and not ed Mio padre ha un flauto e un violino.

February 27, 2019

thanks for the clarification, everyone :)

October 19, 2014

This was very helpful

October 28, 2018
Learn Italian in just 5 minutes a day. For free.