A tip to remember "praten" is to remember that in English we say "prattle" in some cases.
To me, as an English speaker, "The judges talk over the man" means interrupt—however it doesn't mean "interrupt" so much as talking at the same time and louder. I don't think I'd say that sentence, in English, meaning one of those other things.
For discuss, it would be "The judges talk about the man." For persuade, maybe "The judges talk the man over [to their side]."