"He made the agreement with the doctor."
Translation:Han lavede aftalen med doktoren.
From what I can tell, other than the words' usage, is that "doktor" is the title, "læger" is the job. For example: Jeg hedder Doktor Jensen (I'm Doctor Jensen) but Mads er læger (Mads is a doctor). That's what I understand of it at least, if a native can correct me
I think you are right. I would say "Jeg skal til lægen" or if I was feeling silly "Jeg skal til doktormanden". I do not use the word "doktor" much. Presenting yourself as "Doktor X" is not common any more. I am pretty sure you would never hear anybody say "Jeg hedder Doktor X". Not even "Jeg er Doktor X". If you meet a doctor at a hospital he/she would present themselves by first saying their name and then telling you their job. "Jeg hedder Mads Jensen, jeg er overlæge her på psykiatrisk afdeling." It can be hard to distinguish between "læger" (doctors) and "lærer" (teacher). En læge, flere læger, alle lægerne. En lærer, flere lærere, alle lærerne.
Yes so in Russian city names "grad" is a shortened version of "gorod" which means city. In Danish "grad" is more like the English "degree" or "grade". But you're right. Good one.
I do not understand this sentence. You can make an agreement with someone, even with a doctor. But why THE agreement and THE doctor. A particular agreement with a particular doctor, yes. But I think as a sentence it is silly or meaningless. At least if it stands alone like this.