Both is correct. However, the added 'godt' is more common, I think, and it implies that the person doesn't just get along with it but actually really likes it. Say, on a scale from 1 to 10 the added godt makes it go from a 3 or 4 to a 5 or 6. At least that's how I got it. I'm not a native speaker though, so if there is any mistake with what I said, please correct me
Native speaker here too, and I wouldn't consider the extra "godt" a very strong emphasis. The two are basically identical in meaning to me. If I wanted to emphasize, I'd either say "elsker piger chokolade" or perhaps say "kan piger rigtig godt lide chokolade?"
On an unrelated note, it's common to pronounce the word "lide" simply as "li" in this sense ("lide" can also mean "suffer", but that's always fully pronounced). The way duolingo pronounces it can sound a bit stiff and formal, though it's not wrong.
C is a little weird... It can either have the sound of an s or a k, and there are no rule for when to use it or not.