Would we stop in Amsterdam? I don't know what they are trying to say in English, but we would never say this. It's hard out of context to realise the meaning behind some of these phrases, but honestly, I don't know of anyone who would say this as it stands. The only way I can see it being used is in a sentence such as: 'If there is a detour because of the railway work, would we stop in Amsterdam?' I'd be happy to hear from someone what it is really supposed to mean
As you point out, there is no context, so most certainly we would say this, indeed, I may very well have. You are offering me a European performing tour. I love Dutch, so the first question I might ask is "Would we stop in Amsterdam?" You and I are planning on taking a train from Paris to Copenhagen, but you have expressed worry, because there have been riots in Amsterdam. Trying to assess whether this requires a cjange of plans, I might ask "Would we stop in Amsterdam?" Without any context, almost any sentence allowed by the grammar is likely to have been spoken. The only time I might say a sentence is truly unlikely is when we have an obvious and overwhelming preference for another construction that expresses precisely the same meaning. I cannot think of such an obvious substitute here.
"Were we to stop in Amsterdam" is an old subjunctive, I think. In any case, it has a conditional sense, so it will never appear as a separate sentence. E.g. "Were we to stop in Amsterdam, we could smoke some pot and see a Rembrandt." This sounds somewhat archaic, since we usually use "if" now, as in "If we were to stop in Amsterdam, we could smoke some pot and see a Rembrandt." To ask a question, it is always "Will we stop in Amsterdam?" or "Are we going to stop in Amsterdam?" or even "Shall we stop in Amsterdam?"
Ok, thanks! I'm not a native English speaker, but for example, when the train suddenly stops, and you are confused, in Dutch you would say "Zouden we in Amsterdam stoppen?" -> "Were we supposed to stop in Amsterdam?" I might be off completely, but that is how I understood it. To me it is the only circumstance where I would say "Zouden we in Amsterdam stoppen?" as a separate sentence.
"Were we supposed to stop in Amsterdam?" is definitely something one would hear. "Were we to stop in Amsterdam?" might at one point have been a valid translation, but it is terribly archaic, and now sounds conditional, as I said. Really, if my train made an unexpected stop, I would be much more likely to ask "Do we stop in Amsterdam?" but I suppose that is a general question about the train's regular stops.
Technically they are interchangeable -- however the subject 'we' in this sentence is not emphasised. More emphasis is placed upon: 1,) Whether or not a stop would be made and/or 2,) Would Amsterdam be a/the place where we would stop?
Compare with a sentence such as: "Would we or they stop in Amsterdam?"
Another: "Als zij in Amsterdam stoppen, zouden wij ook stoppen?" If/When they stop in Amsterdam, would we also stop (in Amsterdam)?
Good eye! Thanks for the correction \^_^
Edit: Although I am aware of the pronominal case distinctions in English, would the following sentences not be valid?
It (NOM) would be them/us (ACC).
They/We (NOM) would stop.
The first sentence is pretty much the same as the one you mentioned -- albeit with the subject and verb inverted and without the subclause.
I just finished working and am overdue for sleep -- thus my brain is not at full capacity, and I might be overlooking something. :)