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So because Mädchen can mean girl or girls, die or das determines which it is? Thank you
Exactly. And even when you're not using the words das or die, the plural form changes the surrounding grammar differently to the singular form, so you can always tell which it means. For example:
"A tall girl" = Ein großes Mädchen
"Tall girls" = Große Mädchen
Ultimately, this means that German is sometimes less ambiguous than English! Duolingo introduces this a little later :)
A good way to remember this is to think back to your first day of school in KINDERgarten. (Children-garden)
Kind is neuter, but Kinder is plural. The article for plural is die Das Kind, die Kinder.