"I like this cup."
Translation:Eu gosto desta xícara.
isto,este,esta / estes,estas = this / these
isso,esse,essa / esses,essas = that / those (close)
aquilo,aquele,aquela / aqueles,aquelas = that / those (far)
From what I've read, in Brazil "isso" is also used as "this" sometimes, but is more colloquial than correct.
Here's a good explanation that goes into more detail: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/745813
-em esse (masc singular)/essa (fem singular)/esses (masc plural)/essas (fem plural)/isso (neuter)=nesse/nessa, etc... meaning on that, in that, at that for example: sou bom nisso=i am good at that -em este, esta, estes, estas, isto=neste, etc... meaning on this, in this, at this for example: ela está nisto= she is on this -em aquele, aquela, aqueles, aquelas, aquilo=naquele, etc... meaning the same as nesse for example:você dorme naquela cama=you sleep on that bed
-de esse/essa/esses/essas/isso=desse and so on meaning about that, of that for example: é o carro desse homem=it is that man's car
-de este/esta/estes/estas/isto=deste, etc... meaning about this, of this for example: eu falo deste livro=i talk about this book -de aquele/aquela/aqueles/aquelas/aquilo= daquele, etc... meaning the same as desse for example: nós pensamos daquela cama= we think about that bed -a aquele/aquela/aqueles/aquelas/aquilo=áquele, etc... meaning to that for example: ela dá água áquele cavalo=she gives water to this horse
neuter forms (isso,isto, aquilo) are not followed by a noun whereas feminine and masculine ones (the others) can be followed by a noun but not always
hope that helps