That happens only with "i" sounds.
When words end in a weak e, we say it like the Brazilian "i" sound, so it gets the "tch" sound.
- Bate, bati, quati, alicate, time and others get the "tch" sound.
- Tenho, patê (strong e), pato, peteca and others don't take "tch", they have normal "T" sound.
But to the North and to the Northeast of the country, it's not rare to hear "conhecimentcho".
And to the south, only "ti" gets "tch", weak "te"s as Anderlc said, don't.
There are some regions of Brazil where "-te", when in the end of the words, may sound like a "che", but, as I said, it's more of a reigonal thing (for example, in the city where I was born nobody talks like "che", is always "te"). This only happens with "te', however, and never with "to" :)
"É" is 3rd person singular of the verb "ser", while "está" is 3rd person singular of the verb "estar".
"Ser" is used to describe the intrinsic characteristics of someone or something, which tend to be permanent. For example: "A cadeira é vermelha" (The chair is red). Red is a characteristic of the chair, it's "part of what the chair is".
"Estar", on the other hand, is used to express basically three things: 1) the current location of something/someone at the time of speaking (Elá está em casa - She is home); 2) the weather (O tempo está ensolarado - The weather is sunny); and 3) the current state of something/someone at the time of speaking (Eu estou feliz - I am happy).
However, you must be careful in this last case, since "I am happy" can also be translated as "Eu sou feliz". The difference is tenuous:
"Eu sou feliz" means that "feliz" is a part of your own characteristics, it's part of your being. You may still get sad sometimes, but at the end of the day you ARE a happy person. It's like saying that the sun is hot: there are cold days, but still, the sun is hot, right?
"Eu estou feliz" means that right now you are happy, but happiness may not be a part of what you are. If you say this to a brazilian person they'll understand that right now there is something that is making you happy, but it's not a permanent state. That's why when we want to ask "How are you?" in Portuguese we say "Como você ESTÁ?", because we want to know your current state, and not what you really are in the depths of your personality.
Amazing explanation! Obrigado!
Could the difference between 'ser' and 'estar' be interpreted as the difference between small talk and serious inquiry? For example, if you were having an in depth conversation with a close friend would you ask, "Como você ê?" If you wanted to know how they were really doing in the depths of their personality?
De nada! :)
And I wouldn't say that about the difference between them. You can still have a pretty deep talk with someone asking "Como você está?", and "Como você é?" would mean a very different thing: "Como x é?" is often used when you want to know about the physical appearence of something or someone. For example, if you just met someone online you could say "Como você é?" and he/she would probably describe their physical appearance to you. Other example: when someone is missing and you go report it to the police, they may ask you "Como ele/ela é?" so they could have an idea about the person they'll look for.
If you wanted to know someone a little better you could just say "Fale-me de você" (Tell me about you) or follow the conversation normaly and wait for the ther person to open up without asking. Or you could ask something like "Como é a sua personalidade?" (How's your personality?), but it'd be a bit weird to ask that. I'd say that, when it comes to questions, "ser" is far more useful if you want to know about the physical appearence, unless you specify in the question that you want to know about one's personality or something like that.
Ser is for permanent states of being, things that are always true, or at least things that don't have a high likelihood of changing.
Estar is for things that can change.
For example: "você é bonita." You are beautiful. "Você está bonita." You look beautiful right now, maybe with the new hairstyle, or dress or whatever. "Você está bonita naquele vestido." "Você está bonita nesta noite."
It has nothing to with formality or familiarity.