"How do I get a job as a doctor?" means that you don't have a job as a doctor, and want to know how.
"How am I getting a job as a doctor?" suggests that you are actually in the process of getting a job as a doctor, but you don't know how that is happening.
Slightly different meaning: "How do I get... " suggests the job is not yet in hand or even close by. Asking for advice.) "How am I getting ..." implies that a job is closer to hand, but that you have some kind of influence over the outcome. Unless of course, it's asked in a state of despair: As in "How am I (emphasize the I) getting a job as a doctor? ... (implying I am a complete failure...) Language is difficult.. Hope this helps a bit.
It is an incorrect use of English for this Dutch sentence. It is how non-native English speakers speak using literal translations from their own native English.
It is correct that this program marks it wrong.
If you insist on using the form "How am I ... " then you need to change the rest of the sentence.
i.e. Incorrect "How am I getting ..." Correct "How am I going to get ..."
To say "How am I getting a job as a doctor" is actually questioning the fact that you are getting the job, and that you cannot believe it.
e.g. "How am I getting a job as a doctor, i didn't even pass the test"
When "krijgen" means "to get," does its definition more closely resemble that of "to attain" or "to receive"?
Great question. Judging from the (standard) German meaning of "kriegen" I'd say the latter ("to receive") - but in the areas near the Netherlands the dialectal meaning of "kriegen" is "to take". Now I'm wondering if it has something to do with "krijgen" and how it is used.
What is a "career" in Dutch? In Afrikaans it's a "loopbaan" - any connection?