Translation:He thinks that the scheme needs to change.
A scheme is not something that can act on its own. I believe it should be "the scheme needs changing"
As far as I know, the answer first depends on where you are! (In Portugal, 'precisa' is always followed by a 'de'). In Brazil, if you need an object, then you also use 'de' ; Example - 'Ele precisa de um esquema'. However, if you need to do something (need + verb) then you don't need the 'de' - 'Ele precisa mudar o esquema' = He needs to change the scheme.