We dont use it in every conversation but it is a common form in dutch, yes.
Now that i think about it, most of the time you can avoid using the passive form and use another form/tense instead. So as a beginner you might aswell not learn how to use it yourself if you find it difficult, though you need to be able to recognize and understand the form.
This sentence is a useful translation example, but it seems to lead to extremely awkward English. I'd find it much more natural to speak in an active voice "Are you calling me?" But since this lesson is about the passive voice, I couldn't suggest a better answer. It just feels a little unnatural to me, though. Is it also awkward in Dutch, or would people actually speak this way?
Totally agree! Everybody is so confused about this section (also the 'er is' section) while mostly it is just because the developers didn't want to make awkward English sentences. A sentence like this one is great indeed. On duolingo you don't want to learn translations of certain sentence, but you want to understand them. This sentence is a good example of how the Dutch way of speaking works.
And yes, we do say "Wordt ik door jou gebeld?". You could also say "Bel jij mij?" but the two are equally common.
I think technically that would be incorrect, since 'worden' is really used as a passive verb in the present. The reason I'm not sure wether it's technically incorrect is because we do use it to talk about the future, like you do, but only in a sentence like "Ik wordt morgen gebeld voor een solicitatiegesprek". In this sentence it is not clear who is calling tomorrow, I think that's why we might use the passive here. We may also say "Ze gaan me morgen bellen voor een sollicitatiegesprek" in which 'ze' indicates that you don't really know who.
Long story short, no, you can't normally use 'worden' to relate to the future, unless you use 'worden' not as a passive verb, but as the English 'to become' or the french 'devenir'... E.g. "Als ik later groot ben word ik dokter"
Well now that I think of it again, I can actually think of more situations in which you could use 'worden' like that, indeed. Let's put it this way then: I would use 'worden' when there is some uncertainty.
"Oké.... Als het plan klaar is, wordt ik dan gebeld?" "Als jij morgen klaar bent met het plan, bel je me dan?"
Also I think that a worden-structure sounds less demanding, since there is no other person involved (not directly), whom you are asking something off.
Lastly I think that 'worden' as a verb referring to the future is used preferably in more formal situations. In the case of "Wordt ik door jou gebeld?" I feel one is talking to a friend or a relative, hence 'worden' referring to the present and the sentence meaning "Am I being called by you?". If you would want to refer to the future you would most likely imply that by adding words like 'morgen' or 'straks' or 'dan'.
"Are you calling me" has basically the same meaning, but duolingo is trying to make you understand the Dutch way of speaking here. The English sentence sounds odd, but translating it to something like "are you calling me" doesn't really teach you/ make clear the grammar of this sentence.