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The English translation is wrong. The proper translation is "used to", not "use to". The former is currently marked incorrect. For a discussion, see http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/30035/i-use-to-or-i-used-to
You're right "I used to" doesn't work here, but you can't simply substitute "I am used to" without rewriting the sentence as "I am used to drinking coffee without sugar". I think "I usually drink coffee without sugar" sounds good and still translates the sentence (or as bohle suggests: "I normally take coffee without sugar").
I do prefer "I usually/normally drink coffee without sugar" too.
To say "I'm used to drinking" is more like "eu sou/estou acostumado a beber..." (this is better for cases where you want to say "I can handle coffee without sugar, no problem, I'm used to it").
A difference between "I do" and "I am".
Though it is clearly incorrect here, there is nothing inherently wrong with "use to" given the right context. For an example, see: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/use which includes this entry:
used in the past with to to indicate a former fact or state
[didn't use to smoke]
yes, use to can be used after the helping verb did, because did denotes past tense and did used would be redundant. that is not the case here, or in any of the other cases in which duolingo erroneously uses "use to" (and there are several). see http://www.grammar.cl/rules/used-to-use-to.htm
Here's how it works. "use to" basically means "be accustomed to"
In the present "I use to drink coffee" would mean " I am accustomed to drinking coffee." However, this has been archaic since the 19th century. No one would every say this any more. So the Duolingo translation is wrong and should be removed.
The past "I used to drink coffee" means "I was accustomed to drinking coffee." This is now very common, meaning "I drank coffee at some time in the past, but I don't any more."
So "I used to drink coffee without sugar" would be perfectly good contemporary English, but not a correct translation of this sentence.
The sentence should go "I drink coffee without sugar" "It's my habit to drink coffee without sugar" "I usually drink coffee without sugar" "It is my custom to drink coffee without sugar" "I am accustomed to drinking coffee without sugar"
Duo knows. It is present. It just doesn't know "use to" is wrong.
I myself used to think (as Duo seems to think) that I could take "used to" from a past tense and change it into present: "use to". (But I was wrong).
If that were possible, the translation would be ok.
- (past) I used to drink = In the past, my drinking habits were these
- (wrong but logical present) I use to drink = Today my drinking habits are these.
Lots of back and forth here. Bottom line: Duolingo is wrong. The sentence is in past tense, so the correct answer in English is "I used to take coffee without sugar". If you wanted to say the negative counterpart, the past tense form of "do" takes care of the requirement, and "use" would be correct here: "I didn't use to take coffee without sugar."