When do you use 'Esto, esta, este, eso, esa, ese, estos, estas..'
I get confused by those. I know the difference between feminine and masculine but it's still difficult. Can someone explain or maybe have a good site where it is explained?
- Esto (This): Used when the noun or adjective is not mentioned in the sentence.
- Este (This): Use when the noun or adjective is mentioned in the sentence.
- Esta (This): Has the same meaning of «Este» (but feminine).
- Estos (These): Plural form of «Esto» and «Este».
- Estas (These): Plural form of «Esta».
Note: «éste», «ésta», «éstos» and «éstas» (with an initial accent) mean "This one" / "These ones", but sometimes is not used.
T̲h̲a̲t̲/̲T̲h̲o̲s̲e̲ ̲(̲U̲s̲e̲d̲ ̲w̲i̲t̲h̲ ̲s̲o̲m̲e̲t̲h̲i̲n̲g̲ ̲c̲l̲o̲s̲e̲ ̲t̲o̲ ̲t̲h̲e̲ ̲l̲i̲s̲t̲e̲n̲e̲r̲)̲:
- Eso (That): Used when the noun or adjective is not mentioned in the sentence.
- Ese (That): Used when the noun or adjective is mentioned in the sentence.
- Esa (That): Has the same meaning of «Ese» (but feminine).
- Esos (Those): Plural form of «Eso» and «Ese».
- Esas (Those): Plural form of «Esa».
Note: These words also have the "That one" / "Those ones" forms: «ése», «ésa», «ésos» and «ésas».
T̲h̲a̲t̲/̲T̲h̲o̲s̲e̲ ̲(̲U̲s̲e̲d̲ ̲w̲i̲t̲h̲ ̲s̲o̲m̲e̲t̲h̲i̲n̲g̲ ̲a̲w̲a̲y̲ ̲t̲o̲ ̲t̲h̲e̲ ̲l̲i̲s̲t̲e̲n̲e̲r̲ ̲a̲n̲d̲ ̲t̲h̲e̲ ̲s̲p̲e̲a̲k̲e̲r̲)̲:
- Aquello (That): Used when the noun or adjective is not mentioned in the sentence.
- Aquel (That): Used when the noun or adjective is mentioned in the sentence.
- Aquella (That): Has the same meaning of «Aquel» (but feminine).
- Aquellos (Those): Plural form of «Aquello» and «Aquel».
- Aquellas (Those): Plural form of «Aquella».
One last thing: When you use the words «Esto», «Eso» and «Aquello», you can after mention the noun/adjective, the important is not use these words together with them.
- Esto es un perro = This (thing) is a dog — YES
- Esto perro — NO [correct form: «Este perro = This dog»]
- Eso es un perro = That (thing) is a dog — YES
- Eso perro — NO [correct form: «Ese perro = That dog»]
- Aquello es un perro = That (thing) is a dog — YES
- Aquello perro — NO [correct form: «Aquel perro = That dog»]
I agree with others. Very clear set of guidelines. The semi immersive programs like Duolingo and Rosetta Stone have no explanations or guidelines. Maybe RS has them and I have not yet come across them.
This was so helpful! I also see that "estos" is the plural of "este". Estes is not used for the plural.
I'm really confused. I just completed a lesson in Duolingo where the nouns were masculine, but Duolingo stated that "esta" (feminine) was the correct form to be used. For example:
(1) Mi pasaporte esta en el hotel. (2) Donde esta el hotel. (3) Donde esta el telefono. (4) Donde esta el aeropuerto. (5) El banco esta cerrado.
Is this correct, or is there another rule I am missing?
Esta and está are different words. Esta - this. Está - the él/ella/usted form of the verb "estar" (to be). The lesson you completed was using está. ("My passport is in the hotel," etc.)
However, I am wondering why we are using "esta" in the sentence, "My pasaporte esta en el hotel" rather than "My pasaporte (este or es) en el hotel? Since esta is feminine, but the sentence suggests we should be using a masculine form. Excuse my not using proper accents, I can't easily do it with my keyboard.
"Mi pasaporte está en el hotel."
In this sentence, está is neither feminine nor masculine -- Spanish verbs aren't gendered.
You're combining three different things here. First, "está," a form of the verb "estar." Second, "esta" and "este," the feminine and masculine forms of the word for "this." Third, "es," a form of the verb "ser."
If you were to use either esta (no accent) or este, this example sentence would read, "My passport this in the hotel." Clearly this doesn't work -- you need a verb.
It gets more complicated regarding "es." Estar and ser are both verbs meaning "to be," so in both cases this sentence would translate into English as "My passport is in the hotel." There has been a great deal written on when to choose ser over estar or vice versa (some of which you can find on this discussion board). What's relevant here is that "estar" (in this case, in the form "está") is usually preferred when naming locations. You are naming the location of the passport, therefore you would choose "está" over "es."
SpanishDict has some handy verb conjugation charts that you may find helpful. Here is the one for "ser": http://www.spanishdict.com/conjugate/ser And here is the one for "estar": http://www.spanishdict.com/conjugate/estar
See if this helps.
I've written a document which may help you http://spanishplus.tripod.com/DemonstrativePronounAdjective.htm#TopOfPage
I prefer this one although again it's a little too much for me although I know i need to learn it if I want to progress
The link above is a good explanation. [edit: now it is below by remoonline] I would just add that one way I memorized them is by imagining the distances visually along with the word & maybe even chopping your hand in the air to place them at the 3 distances. Also, I remember that "este" and "esta" are closer to me (than "ese" or "esa"), by remembering the "t" in the first set of words and picturing a cross close to me. (Saying "t" is closer to me is my trick.)
I heard a catchy rhyme for this once that I always remember. 'This and these have T's, that and those don't'
Same here, I would need to use it a lot more than learning before it all sink in. I found the first link/suggestion a little to theoretical but got a little more out of the second. As for Julian L's it seems quite good but you need a good brain to incorporate it properly Thank you all anyway