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Could also be translated as "my pillow does not talk"? In English there is a subtle difference between talk and speak. Here "does not talk" suggests that it cannot talk, but "does not speak" suggests that it could speak if it wanted to. I have no idea how you would make that distinction in Portuguese.
That's an interesting question actually. This specific sentence could be interpreted both ways. My next thought is to use "O meu travesseiro não pode falar," where "poder" is "to be able to", but another problem arises: "poder" can also mean "may", so that same sentence could mean "My pillow may not talk," in terms of permission. It seems to be a guessing game no matter what.
"...an idiom with the meaning that what I say to my pillow is confidential" Exactly what I think!
In this sentence the possessive pronoun works as an adjective - it goes with and modifies the noun. To say "meu travesseiro" has one meaning while saying "teu travesseiro" has other meaning.
In this kind of sentence, the rule says that the article that is right before an adjective possessive-pronoun is optional. Saying "o meu travesseiro" is the same as saying "meu travesseiro".
It is important to note that Portuguese people prefer always to use the article before an adjective possesive-pronoun while Brazilians are not so strict.