Is there any distinction between a (smaller) 'community' and 'society' på dansk?
Not really . "Et samfund" can be a village made of 3 houses. Often it vould be called a "landsbysamfund" (village society)
But when you want to say something like "as a danish soceity" can you say samfund as well?
Yep. You can even say "verdenssamfundet" (the world society)