"He likes carrot cake."
Translation:Ele gosta de bolo de cenoura.
Bolo can be any type of cake. I tried to search about the expression, but couldn't find any explanation of its origin, though I found other interesting portuguese/brazilian expressions (some of them I haven't even heard anywhere) and the origins here: http://www.arara.fr/BBEXPRESSOESIDIOMATICAS.html
PS.: "Dar um bolo" can also be expressed as "furar com alguém": Ele me deu um bolo hoje = Ele furou comigo hoje. PS2.: "I got stood up" seems like the portuguese "Eu fiquei plantado(a) lá" which means that someone forgot to meet you (te deu um bolo xD) and you stood there waiting for him/her.
Maybe someone else can give a more in-depth answer but the simple answer is the verb gostar (and it's conjugations) is always followed by "de". When I first came across this I wanted to know why but I think I eventually just accepted the reason given to me by my Portuguese friend at the time: "It just is".
The article identifies a specific thing.
Carrot cake is different from "the" carrot cake.
He likes carrot cake = he likes any/all carrot cakes in general.
He likes the carrot cake = he likes that one carrot cake.
Ele gosta DE bolo de cenoura
Ele gosta DO bolo de cenoura (de + o)
This is the natural DL steps:
1/ We try without knowing the rules, sometimes randomly. 2/ We fail 3/ We're very confused and we want to know the rules. 4/ We ask on this forum 5/ Someone explains the grammar and the use with some examples (here, the prepositions) 6/ We understand our mistakes or ask more questions if we don't understand 7/ Now we know and we try to no make the mistake again. 8/ We are able to explain to someone else on the forum (and we check if we had a good understanding at the same time)