It seems that "incluyendo, incluso, incluido y inclusive" are all used to mean "including." See: http://www.spanishdict.com/translate/including "Incluir" and all its relatives have always been confusing for me, so at this point I'm willing to believe anything about it.
Whichever you use though, they are all prepositions. So my question is: Why the personal "a"? It isn't used with any other preposition. And the phrase seems to translate fine without the "a."
"Including" isn't a preposition here; it's a participle. The "a" is a preposition, though one that's not directly translated into English. It's used here because mi esposa is both a person and the direct object of the sentence (or in this case, of the sentence fragment).
"Gerund" as the title of this module is probably really, really wrong. It should be "Present Participle". English gerunds are not the same kind of grammatical creature as a so-called "gerund" in Spanish. From what I've gathered, Spanish gerunds/present participles are never used as nouns, like they are in English. The true English gerund is translated with the Spanish infinitive. Example:
In English, we would say, "Including my wife is very important."
In Spanish, it would be something like, Incluir a mi esposa es muy importante. It would never be Incluyendo a mi esposa es muy importante.
Thanks for noticing this, Majklo. "Incluyendo" is indeed the present participle of "incluir." (But spanishdict.com DOES show it as a preposition.) I was thinking in English and in English this phrase, "including my wife," sounds like a prepositional phrase (part of a sentence such as "There are four of us including my wife"). In Spanish, "incluso, incluido, y inclusive" are prepositions (but not "incluyendo"?). So, this sentence fragment is confusing. I can only assume that Duo was thinking of a sentence such as: "We are including my wife" (Estamos incluyendo a mi esposa) and that they should have given us the complete sentence in order to clear up the confusion. I'm going to report it to them the next time I come across this sentence fragment.
The verb incluir's past participle is incluido (included) and it's present participle is incluyendo (including). That's formed by a regular rule in which -ir verbs take the -iendo ending, but Spanish does not like 3 vowels in a row, so incluiendo is changed by a different orthographic rule to incluyendo.
Being a verb, if its object is a person or pet, they get the personal "a".
The past participle is used in perfect constructions (with a form of haber as auxillary) and the present is used in imperfect constructions (with a form of estar).
Spanishdict shows them as translations of the English preposition "including". If you type either incluido or incluyendo requesting their translations, you will be giving the incluir page. This might mean that the English is a proposition, but the Spanish isn't...?
"Including my wife" is a "participial phrase." A participial phrase has a present participle (taking, sending, giving ) or past participle (taken, sent, given) and accompanying modifiers and "complements" http://www.k12reader.com/term/participle-phrase/
Here, ""my wife" is the complement of "including."
In addition, "including" is a participle that functions as a preposition. http://www.english-grammar-revolution.com/list-of-prepositions.html
Participles can function as prepositions https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/participles/exercises?13 http://grammarist.com/grammar/participial-prepositions/
Participial phrases can also function as adjectives and adverbs. http://study.com/academy/lesson/how-to-identify-use-adjectival-adverbial-phrases.html http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/phrases.htm https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/participles
Hola SGuthrieO!. Hablo español y sé que la traducción NO es:" Incluir a mi esposa", pero pregunto: "incluyendo" no necesita " It is" antes, salvo que la oración corresponda a la segunda parte de una conversación y entonces tendría sentido. Estoy un poco desorientada. Thanks and greetings
Grace, I understand your confusion. "including my wife" is not a sentence, it is only a phrase (part of a sentence). A complete sentence is: "We will be including my wife" (estaremos incluyendo mi esposa). Here "including my wife" is part of a "progressive or continuous" tense. Spanish translates this with a "gerundio," (aka "present participle", in English.
"Ing" verb forms can be either "present participles", used in the progressive (continuous) tense, or they can be "gerunds" (in English). A gerund in English is an "ing" verb form used as a noun. ("Gerund" and "gerundio" are false cognates -- cognados falsos, or "amigos falsos".
"Including my wife is important to me." (In this sentence, "including" is a gerund, part of a gerund phrase (including my wife) that is used as the subject of the sentence. Spanish translates gerunds (inglesa) with the infinitive. Thus "Incluir a mi esposa es importante para mi." This is the Spanish translation.
Had DL used the phrase "including my wife" in a complete sentence, it would have been less confusing.
Entiendo tu confusión. "Incluyendo a mi esposa" no es una oración, es sólo una frase (parte de una oración). Una oración completa es: "We will be including my wife" (estaremos con mi esposa). Aquí "including my wife" es parte de un tiempo "progresivo o continuo". El español traduce esto con un "gerundio". (también conocido como "present participle" (participio presente) en inglés.
Las formas verbales de "ing" (en ingles) pueden ser "participios presentes", usadas en el tiempo progresivo (continuo), o pueden ser "gerunds" (en inglés). Un gerund en inglés es una forma de verbo "ing" usada como sustantivo. ("Gerundio" y "gerundio" son cognados falsos, o "amigos falsos". "Including my wife is important to me." (En esta oración, "including" es un gerund (inglesa), parte de una frase gerund (including my wife) que se utiliza como el sujeto de la oración. El español traduce gerunds (inglesa) con el infinitivo. Por lo tanto "Incluir a mi esposa es importante para mi." Esta es la traducción al español. Si DL usara la frase "incluyendo a mi esposa" en una oración completa, habría sido menos confuso. Espero que ayude.
Por favor, disculpe cualqier error. Y corregirlos. See also, Jeffrey, below.