Unless things have changed lately there's a law "juicelagen" that specify what you are allowed to put into something called juice. Basically you are only allow to add the "thing" mentioned and a little bit of acid (the one in lemons/oranges).
Mangojuice = made from mango and nothing else // Morotsjuice = made from carrots... // etc
But as my Swedish friend says, unfortunately this distiction doesn't exist in English/portugues/spanish/etc. They call everything juice/sugo/etc no matter if it's the real thing or just water, sugar and some chemical to give a fake taste. This drives me crazy when I travel :-(
Not sure about the USA but the distinction is there in Britain. Juice has to be made 100% from fruit, if it uses concentrate it must be declared on the packaging.
Nearly everything else is called either squash or cordial depending on the strength of the concentrate.
There is also nectar which needs to be at least 25% fruit but it's rare that you see anyone with this.
Like previously mentioned, English hasn't got as clear a line between those drinks as Swedish does, but "cordial" or "squash" would be more like "saft". Saft is a concentrate made of sugar and fruit, berries or flowers (usually elder flower) that you dilute with water before drinking.
Swedish has no distinction between those two phrases (it is essentially missing a tense that we have in English). However, if you want to really stress that you are doing something now you can add another verb: for example, 'jag sitter och dricker juice' (i sit and drink juice) as opposed to just, 'jag dricker juice'.
Swedish is in the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic family, plus the vikings (from Denmark, Norway and Sweden) invaded England, Scotland and Ireland in the 8th or 9th century and ruled essentially until 1066, when another group of Scandinavians who had invaded France took over. Lots of English words, and even more words in Scots English, were borrowed directly from Scandinavian languages.
The spelling jos was introduced in the Swedish Academy's dictionary 1973. During this time there was a debate about spelling words the way you pronounce them. The spelling, however, was removed in 1986 when the Swedish Academy published their eleventh edition of their dictionary. Jos hasn't been a correct way of spelling the word juice since then.
I never heard that exist a grammatical difference for natural juice and a chemical one in English. At least here in Brazil people usually say "suco" for everything. But when someone says "refresco" it's only about the chemical one. And some call these "juices" powder as Death's powder. Heheheh
That's not true. saft in Swedish is really 'cordial' or 'squash' in English, but we also accept saft as a translation for English 'juice' since Sweden is especially picky about juice being juice.
The Swedish word juice has a special spelling history described by Erik_E in a comment above. Today, the only spelling in the standard spelling word list SAOL is juice.
In the US, they're usually referred to as "juice" and "juice from concentrate", with the from concentrate in really small lettering and then some pictures of oranges or whatever. It doesn't matter whether it's real fruit or just flavoured sugar water.
"Squash" is a completely different thing this side of the pond.
SAOL = Svenska Akademins Ordlista (Dictionary of the Swedish Academy)
Although the mission of the Swedish Academy is only to observe the language used, their dictionary is often used as a norm. For example, when playing Scrabble, it's common to use SAOL as the list of accepted words.
So, could someone clarify whether 'saft' is 'juice' as in pure fruit juice, or does it mean squash, and the same question for juice?
I am guessing that since 'juice' is a loan word from English it is more recent in origin, and is more likely to refer to cordials, whereas I'm guessing 'saft' is more likely to refer to fresh juices. But I may be wrong. Help?
I'm no cooking expert, but it seems that gravy is sky (this is from when we borrowed the French word juice and spelled it like it sounded to us) and stock is buljong or spad.
I'd say köttsaft needs to be raw but gravy seems to be cooked. I also think gravy would often be sås, I don't think sky can have flour in it (it should be clear I think) but it seems gravy can.
Anyone more familiar with the terminology feel free to correct this!