A fundamental thing you need to understand is that the Dutch infinitive translates both the English infinitive and the English gerund. In English, some verbs require an extended infinitive such as "[I want] to swim" and some require a gerund such as "[I consider] swimming". For some ("I love ...") both are possible, with or without a change in meaning, and some even take a bare infinitive such as "[I can] swim". The situation in Dutch is similar but simpler.
Hoeven is the modern form of (antiquated) behoeven, an obvious cognate of to behoove. The following overly literal translation to Shakespearean English leverages your English intuitions for understanding why (or at least remembering that) the word te is needed here:
- Ik (be)hoef niet te zwemmen.
- It behooves me not to swim.
The translation would be even more obvious if Dutch had "Het behoeft me niet te zwemmen" or English had "I behoove not to swim", but at least in this case the two languages still agree on whether te / to is required. (Occasionally they disagree about that.)