How can Jij draagt schoen be incorrect? Isn't schoenen just plural of schoen? In this case, the singular should work, no?
That would be the same as saying, in English, You wear shoe. For singular nouns, you need to add an article.
However, that is besides the point here. "You wear shoes" and "you wear a shoe" do not mean the same thing, so you cannot just substitute one for the other.