"Do you practice any sports?"
Translation:Você pratica algum esporte?
To complement Paulenrique's good answer, if you asked "você pratica qualquer esporte?", you would be asking something containing an idea similar to these:
- Doesn't it matter which sport you practice?
- Are you able to practice any/all kinds of sports?
I believe "do you practice any sports" is ambiguous (someone correct me if I'm wrong), thus it could accept "qualquer" as well as "algum", both meaning different things.
Interesting tip about "qualquer":
Qualquer is a fusion of qual + quer (which + want).
Even it's plural form is irregular, the "s" applies to "qual" in the middle of the word: quaisquer (which ones + want)
So it helps to think of it as: any one you want.
In this example:
Você pratica algum esporte? ~ Do you practice any (at least one) sports? Do you practice something?
Você pratica qualquer esporte? ~ Do you practice any sport you want / I want?