"Hon studerar nästan hela sommaren."
Translation:She studies almost all summer.
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It was a serious question. I'm not actually sure if this is even a thing geography students study, but consider someone that studies weather patterns according to seasons.
So in which case they could say "She almost studied the whole summer" or "She almost studies the whole summer". How would I say this?
Ah, you meant studying summer as a subject! They'd study that in several subjects, like Climatology (which e.g. geologists study, too), Meteorology, and there's at least two kinds of geography subjects, Natural Geography and Human Geography who might have very different takes on the concept of summer. Anyway, in English you can move the adverb as you say, both She studies almost the whole summer and She almost studies the whole summer, and in principle you could say that almost would modify different things in the sentence, although it would be far from unambiguous anyway.
In Swedish, you can't put the nästan before the verb here, because of the V2 rule. The verb needs to be on second place in the sentence (as long as it isn't a subclause or a question). And you definitely can't be sure what "nästan" modifies. The first interpretation in this case would of course be that she spends most of the summer studying. But if you say Hon läser nästan hela boken it's obvious that that sentence will mean She reads most of the book, so it all depends on the content of the sentence.
So it's quite possible to mean that she studies summer as a subject using this sentence in Swedish. But in order to state clearly that this is what she's doing, you'd need to rephrase it. In fact you'd need to do that in English too if you wanted to be unambiguous. Without other context, the best route would be to say something like Hon studerar hela sommarperiodens klimatförhållanden. = She studies the climate conditions of the whole summer period. That would be totally unambiguous in both languages.
I'm a little lost on this translation myself. As for your English translation you would need "the" inserted to have it sound correct in English, i.e. "She studies almost the entire summer".
For the moderater, sorry, I'm still lost on the rule on why it's summaren and not summar? Cheers