Etymology From Old Norse fogl, from Proto-Germanic *fuglaz. Cognate with English: fowl. In the mid 19th century, the spelling fogel was common, but SAOL 6 (1889) lists the spelling as fågel only. --wiktionary
Another example of language purge?
Not really, just Swedish spelling becoming more and more regularized around the turn of the century back then, reaching its modern state some hundred years ago. One of the changes were the extremely radical measure of deciding /v/ would henceforth be spelled with V rather than hv, fv, f or v. :p
I heard that Norwegian always want to wash themselves out of Danish influence, don't know anything about Swedish though.
Norwegian has had a great deal more of Danish influence though, due to some 400 years (1397-1814) of being ruled from and by Denmark.
This word sounds pretty much like the german word for bird, I mean, Vogel. In german "v" is pronounced "f".
I know that "e" can be placed after a vowel to simulate an umlaut, but is there a similar way of simulating an a-ring? I'm guessing "ao" is not used.
It's actually aa for å. I should note, though, that using such simulations is heavily discouraged - it's generally better to just use a, a, o instead of aa, ae, oe if you can't access å, ä, ö.