According to Wiktionary it comes from the Old Norse "sízt", which according to Google means "less, hardly".
Is this correct?
En: Min bror kommer sist
Ett: Ett djur kommer sist
Definite: Hästen kommer sista
Plural: Sköldpaddar kommer sista
Edit: The above was not correct!!!
Min bror är/kommer sist (Predikativt, en ord)
Ett djur är/kommer sist (Predikativt, ett ord)
Den sista hästen (Attributivt och dubbel bestämd, en eller ett ord)
Still stuck on how to use this as an adjective with a plural... it seems that (in English at least) we would always use the definite with this as an adjective eg. the last children, de sista barnen hence becomes dubbel bestämd form and uses the -a.
Otherwise it seems to act more as an adverb or at least seems to remain in its base form of "sist" in the predikativt form - the same as for the predikativt in the first two sentences eg. sköldpaddor är/kommer sist.
Have I missed something here or is it always "sist" except for in the attributivt/dubbel bestämd form? Zmrzlina any chance that you could provide a further example here? Tack så mycket!
Indeed. Some months later I can answer my own question! Sist does not change in the examples above, only in dubbel bestämd form. ”Den sista sköldpadda” - ”The last turtle.” Also I spelt sköldpaddor wrong! Edit - this is Jane of Kiwidressager replying from my phone. Unsure as to why it created a new log in etc for me...?!
I agree with 4oYBIxtO. I dont know how to explain this in english, but neither in swedish, but kommer has to function here as if it were to be a helping verb, which i call middle voice. I understand it if i were to say, Min bror är sist. Ett djur är sist. Hästen är sist. Sköldpaddar är sist. BUT, Den sista sköldpaddar. Also another translation that i find helpul, is the following for kommer, It comes to be. And there you can see the helping verb, be, which has to be followed with an adjective, and that is middle voice.
I'm not Zmrzlina but you're right in that it's always "sist" in predicative form...
- Min bror är sist (My brother is last)
- Ett djur är sist (An animal is last)
- Hästarna är sist (The horses are last)
...and it's almost always "sista" when it's attributive.
- En sista drink (A last drink)
- Det sista hoppet (The last hope)
- Mina sista timmar (My last hours) (Wow, this is a cheery set of examples, isn't it?)
The exception is that for singular definitive males you can use the masculine form, "siste". Den siste mannen. The last man. However, this form is entirely optional and no one will even notice if you don't use it.
I did some digging. In english you have the phrase cease and desist. Where desist means stop what you are doing. "Sist" comes (through french) from latin "desistere". The second part comes from a root meaning to stand. Exist shares that second part. ( I guess to stop being static and becoming alive).
I can think of a bridge between stop and last. But not at all sure if they are related. Couldnt find any pages about the root of the word that weren't in swedish ( or norse)
I had a similar doubt about this matter a while ago, and from that, I think it depends on the matter you are describing with the adjective... anyway, what I have seen, but anyone correct me if I am wrong, is that the definite form is used when the adjective goes after the possessive pronoun... as in "Min gröna skoldpadda", but the regular form is used after a verb (e.g. "Min skoldpadda är grön) or when it works as a complement after a complete clause is given... as in this sentence... Anyhow, I am still looking after how it works, so don't take it as a corollary or a general rule... eventhough it has helped me so far. But if you find or reach the rule, please share it... =)... Greetings.