I think that det is used before the word with an adjective, to show that it is definite, but not pretty sure, please correct me if I am wrong
det år = the year
hundens = the dog's / of the dog
det hundens år = the year of the dog
No, you cannot say "det år".
A straight translation of this sentence would be.
This year, it is the dog's year.
"Det" refers to "it" in the sentence above, but the word order has shifted since the sentence starts with a time indicator (i år). With English word order the sentence would be "I år, det är hundens år" (NOTE THAT THIS SENTENCE IS WRONG)
Swedish does not use the construction "of the", we rather use the genitive in all cases. So "hundens" means both "the dog's" and "of the dog".
Question 1: Can you comment on my line of reasoning below?
Det är hundens år i år. It is the dog's year this year.
In English it is also possible to say:
This year is the dog's year.
Since in Swedish the verb is in the second "slot" of any(?) statement, är must immediately follow i år:
I år är det hundens år. This year is it (det är, except with the word order switching thing) the dog's year.
A simpler example might be:
I eat today. Jag äter idag.
Today I eat. Idag äter jag.
2) Isn't the above sentence ambiguous? Couldn't it also mean Today is eating me?
1) You seem to have grasped this structure very well.All the Swedish sentences you write above are correct!
2) The above sentence is not ambiguous since "jag" only means "I", i.e. first person subjective, If you for some strange reason would like to express that "today is eating me", you would have to use the objective form, i.e. "mig".
So: I eat today - "Jag äter idag"
Today I eat - "Idag äter jag"
Today eats me - "Idag äter mig"
However, nobody would probably understand that last sentence since it really doesn't make sense.
It would make more sense if we exchange "today" with "dog":
Jag äter hunden - I eat the dog
Hunden äter jag - I eat the dog
Hunden äter mig - The dog eats me
Mig äter hunden - The dog eats me
I could see "Today is eating me" as something similar to "Today is killing me." I would be somewhat surprised, but I would accept it as reasonable.
as someone dealing with depression, I often feel like the day is eating me. Have a lingot for making me smile!
Oh I should've seen that! I've been taking german for 3 years, so I should know that word order. Is swedish always the same word order as german?
No, the word orders have similarities, but they are not the same.
When putting a point in the beginning of a sentence the order changes. Some examples are: i dag, i går, i morgon, i år, på onsdag, i kväll, i förrgår morse etc
The sentence "I am here today" could then be translated in two ways; "Jag är här i dag" & "I dag är jag här"
Note that you could be marked wrong if you choose another word order than the shown since we want to force you to learn this rule. i.e. if the English sentence is "Today I am here" you should translate it to "i dag är jag här", but if the English sentence is "I am here today" you should write "Jag är här i dag".
Just go for the one closest to the given sentence :)
Is that the rule about the verb being in the second place? (it's still second place after i dag because it's considered to be a singular adverbial phrase of time?)
So is there any difference between german and swedish word order? In german I could say, "Heute bin ich hier" or "Ich bin hier heute." I could even say, "Ich bin heute hier." Is swedish word order like this?
You could not say "Jag är i dag här", but the other two ways are fine. You could say "Här är jag i dag".
Is that why "är" comes before "det"? So you are technically saying "this year is it the dog's year"?
This year, it is the dog's year can I say it like this ( I år det är hundens år ) ? is it grammaticaly correct ? and why ( är det ) translated to (it is ) ... I thought that we use ( är det ) to make questinos ... could you please explain it... tack :)
No, you need to think about the V2 rule here, so the verb has to come right after "i år". So, "I år det är hundens år" is wrong
Just in case anybody else was wondering what the other Chinese zodiac years would be in Swedish...
De är apans år (Year of the Monkey), tuppens år (Rooster), grisens år (Pig), råttans år (Rat), oxens år (Ox), tigerns år (Tiger), kaninens år (Rabbit), drakens år (Dragon), ormens år (Snake), och hästens år (Horse).
Och i år är det fårets år! (Sheep)
Probably my fault :) Living in China for several years does influence you...
Yes, well not horoscope as such... but each Chinese year is named after an animal.
i dag = today i år = this year i vecka = this week ???
So i means this when talking about time?
Possessive pronouns and nouns marked with the possessive s (the s-genetive) are always followed by a noun in the indefinite form. Hundens år, not hundens året; Martins katt, not Martins katten; min hund, not min hunden; ditt barn, not ditt barnet; etc.
I think because there can't be multiple definitives? You've got a definitive dog, so a definitive year would be awkward. Kind of like the difference between "the dog's year" and "the dog's the year" in English. That second "the" doesn't belong.
But I'm not the expert, so take my words with a grain of salt?
Hi lostdrewid, that makes perfect sense. The only problem is that "hundens" essentially modifies "år". So just as we would say "det glatt barnet", surely we say "i år är det hundens året"... but evidently not, hence my confusion...
Hundens isn't an adjective, so it isn't equivalent to glada in the two sentence structures. That's why the sentences can be so different. Hopefully that clears up your confusion.
I know "hundens" isn't an adjective; I said "modifies". Genitives modify noun phrases, too. Anyway, no worries, Jan-Olav has already cleared things up. :-)
Here you must notice that 'det' belongs to 'är' and not to 'hundens år'. And a small correction: det GLADA barnet.
Can anyone explain to me what the year of the dog/dog's year is supposed to mean? That sounds really confusing.
Hundens år: 16 Feb 2018 - 4 Feb 2019 "Lojal, klok, känslig och modig" kännetecknar hundens år, vilket är det elfte av zodiakens tolv djur i den kinesiska kalendern. Övriga djur är: råtta, oxe, tiger, kanin, drake, orm, häst, get, apa, tupp och gris.
Pardom my ignorance, but what is meant by year of the dog? Is it like in the Chinese calendar?
I guess so. The order is Mouse, Ox, Tiger, Rabbit, Dragon, Snake, Horse, Sheep, Monkey, Chicken, Dog, and Pig. 2015 is the year of the Sheep.
Yep. This year, and the next year, and the next year, and the next year... At least for my dogs.
Sorry, but I don't get why "I år". Shouldn't "i" mean "in"? Or is it just a cliché, i år?
Yes, i år is a set expression meaning this year, just like i dag means today.
I think I've seen idag, igår, and imorgan as single-word expressions mentioned, probably in other comments. (I forget if that is a different dialect). Can iår be one word also?
I bet you have, this has been mentioned in any number of comments here. To recap, the versions igår, idag, imorgon and some others are also perfectly correct, but the Language council (Språkrådet) recommends writing them all apart because not all expressions of this kind can be written together. i år is an example of this: it is not written together. Other examples that cannot be written together are i övermorgon ('the day after tomorrow') and i eftermiddag ('this afternoon').
About how i dag etc are treated in this course, also see this topic: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/12941839