You can move around the ”inte” a lot for different emphasis and effects. Your sentence is also right. You can say:
- Inte ser skådespelarna oss?
- Ser inte skådespelarna oss?
- Skådespelarna ser oss inte.
- Skådespelarna ser inte oss.
It has to do with the pronoun. The syntax is different for pronouns. You can say both these sentences, but if you’d say ”Skådespelarna ser teatern inte”, that’s definitely wrong.
- Han tappade honom inte. = correct
- Han tappade inte honom. = correct
- Han tappade boken inte. = wrong
- Han tappade inte boken. = correct
Yeah, but this is an exception, and some people (especially younger) use skådespelare for actresses as well as actors. You would never see läkerska as the feminine of läkare, and mäklerska is only used in the compund äktenskapsmäklerska 'marriage broker', not as an equivalent of mäklare 'real estate agent, broker'. Lärarinna 'teacher' was used before, but is very unusual these days, and lärare now applies to both genders.
Does skådespelare serve as the indefinite plural for skådespelerska, too? Or is it skådespelerskor? What about the definite plural of skådespelerska? Is it skådespelarna or skådespelerskorna? What happens with forming the plural when there is a group of both actors and actresses?
The indefinite plural is skådespelerskor. The definite plural is skådespelerskorna. When there is a group of mixed gender, even one man among a thousand women, it takes the masculine (skådespelare/skådespelarna for indefinite/definite), just as you would never use "actresses" to refer to a group of male and female actors. Just about every language that distinguishes gender in the plural, whether in a small degree like this or actually having separate pronouns for masc. pl. and fem. pl., takes the masculine form for mixed groups (at least among Indo-European and Semitic languages, and I think some Altaic).
Pardon, what connection to Shakespeare? The word skådespelare is not related to the name Shakespeare whatsoever, if that's what you mean.
Swedish used to make a difference between masculine and feminine a long time ago. This is reflected in a few things that remain, like having gendered words for some professions. All or almost all professions used to have gendered words if applicable - most just merged over time.
I'm happy to stand corrected on there being no influence of the name "Shakespeare" on the Swedish term.
However, the Swedish for actor, and the name "Shakespeare" look very similar to an English speaker. Perhaps there's an older connection still from when the Vikings invaded the northern parts of the British Isles. Perhaps the forerunner of the term for actor made its way to Britain and became a surname in English...that a later playwright had.
skådespelare comes from German Schauspieler, and "Shakespeare" comes from the words "shake" and "spear". Let's break it down a bit:
skåda means to look. It is a direct cognate of the English word "show". Both derived from a Proto-Germanic root, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European, and Old English frequently uses the sh sound where North Germanic languages use sk. You can see the same sh/sk connection in English "shake" vs its Swedish cognate skaka.
spel means "play", in this case as in a theatrical play.
-are is a suffix for someone who does something. So it's the same as -er in English, e.g. play -> player.
"spear" is a very old word, for which even its root also means "spear".
So while I can understand that they look similar at a glance, "Shakespeare" is about as close to skådespelare as to "spoonstore", etymologically speaking. There is absolutely no connection to Vikings invading the British Isles and leaving words for actors - especially since those words are much younger than the Vikings.