In English we have "What DOES a judge DO?" and we use that verb form twice but in Swedish it is just gör once and seems to be like "What does a judge?".
Is this common in other constructions?
So you don't use the article with an occupation in normal sentence but in question it is necessary?
There is no article with an occupation word when using the verb "vara" (vara, är, var, varit), for example "I am a journalist" = "Jag är journalist".
Unless it's a question, and you really don't know what it is, 'en domare', the concept in itself. I suppose that kind of questions mainly are put by children or language students. :-)
I went with "What makes a judge?" – whilst I accept that that's not the translation they were looking for, is it technically correct or should I use a different phraseology to ask that?
How do you say he judges people?
I wrote what is the judge doing and got it wrong. How would that be said in Swedish.
I think that is: "Vad gör domaren?"