so, can we say: ''måndag, tisdag, onstage, torsdag och fredag är vardagar, lördag och söndag är helg''?
Wiktionary says this about workday: Any of the days of a week on which work is done. The five workdays in many countries are usually Monday to Friday (and are defined as such in official and legal usage even though many people work on weekends). and this about weekday: A weekday is any day of the week except Sunday and often also Saturday. "Weekday" usually means the same as workday, however in some countries with a five-day workweek, the term weekday may still retain the old meaning "all days except Sunday", from when most people worked on Saturdays.
tl;dr Basically yes, though there may be exceptions in some cases.
In Swedish, en vardag is any day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, or public holiday.
En does not disappear, but är is very often pronounced as e or ä, depending on dialect, and before words starting with the same sound, it may be difficult to discern.
A Swedish acquaintance once insisted I had to pronounce "är" as "ä", dropping the "r". I was confused because when I first learned the word on DuoLingo, I did hear the R sound, and I'm practically sure I also heard it in a show, once, on which one of the characters (and actor) was Swedish (the show was American). So my question is: how common is it to drop the R sound in "är"?
It's usually dropped, especially before consonants, but not always. Sometimes it pops up even in contexts where it's usually swallowed. The d at the end of vad is also usually swallowed, so the most natural way of saying this sentence would be like "Vaeenvarda" (the g at the end of dag is also usually omitted).
Thank you! Another question if you don't mind: you mention the [ r ] sound is dropped in 'är' most of the time, especially before consonnants... does that mean that it will be pronounced more often before a vowel or is that still not too common? And is pronouncing these letters (the [ r ], the [ g ], etc.) a little too strange in natural speech or is it acceptable? (I'm thinking of the second T in 'twenty' which can be swallowed, but won't come off as strange if pronounced, for instance...)
Google translate also gives "weekday" and"spring day" is this correct? Also it give vårdag which translates the same as vardag is there a difference?
vårdag is 'spring day' and vardag is a 'work day' – completely different words.
Remember that a and å are totally different letters in Swedish, the ring isn't an accent or anything.
Can you say: Vad var det om det vardag i vår? What was that on that workday in this spring?
No, that makes no sense in Swedish at all. I'm not really sure what you're trying to say in English either, to be honest, although the English sentence is grammatically sound.
Your English sentence is kind of unwieldy but I would translate it as "Vad var det där på arbetsdagen i vår (assuming you mean a future spring; the past spring would be "våras")?"