"I listen because she speaks."
Translation:Jag lyssnar därför att hon pratar.
The general summary (as I grasped it) is:
för att, därför att eftersom are subordinate conjugations, meaning that one statement justifies the rest of the statement.
för att: Expresses an intention behind the main statement "She is always slow, because she wants to be late" Hon är alltid långsam för att hon vill vara sent
därför att: The subordinate statement is the theory as to why the main statement occurs "She's late, because she is always slow" Hon är sen därför att hon är alltid långsam.
Eftersom: Begins the sentence with the reason (again, similar to "because" or "due to the fact that"). Eftersom can also be used as per därför att. "Because she is always slow, she's late" Eftersom hon är alltid långsamt, hon är sen
för: The statements are linked but neither is subordinate. (similar to "for") "She is late, for she is slow" Hon är sen för hon är långsam
därför: Basically "therefore". The justification sentence is separate from the explanation sentence. "She is always slow. Therefore she is late." Hon är alltid långsam. Därför är hon sen
I'm grateful for the excellent team effort: jbrains762 + Blaze-Storm!
B-S, can you clarify something for me, though, about "för?" To me, this seems like a direct swap of "for" for "because," except in English, using 'for' sounds a bit antiquated. Is this true in Swedish as well?
Also, could it be said that 'talk' suggests conversation between two parties where 'speak' connotes a one-sided verbal exchange, i.e. 'let's talk,' vice 'I wish to speak to you'? Not universally true, of course: a person could 'give a talk' to a group who listens and people can 'speak to each other,' I'm just trying to suss out connotation/common use.
(att) lyssna is the infinitive, the counterpart to '(to) listen' in English. Lyssnar is the present form of the verb, used for all persons, so jag lyssnar, hon lyssnar = 'I listen, she listens'.
We don't have the present continuous form, and we also don't have the gerund that listening sometimes represents.
Yes, att is necessary, you can't use just därför here. Därför and därför att are two different things.
I know why she talks would be Jag vet varför hon talar in Swedish.
Därför generally means 'therefore'. It would be used like this in this context:
Hon talar och därför lyssnar jag - 'She speaks and therefore I listen'.
Yes. This sentence consists of two clauses, but both are main clauses. You can tell because the thing that connects the clauses is och, which is a coordinating conjunction.
So the clauses are [Hon talar] and [därför lyssnar jag].
In all clauses that are not questions or subclauses, we must follow the V2 rule, which says that the verb must come in the second place.
Let's compare, I had varför, which is a subordinating conjunction, in an example in my last comment. That means that it starts a subclause, where the V2 does not hold.
We'll add an adverb to make it clearer.
MAIN CLAUSE + MAIN CLAUSE: [Hon talar] och [därför lyssnar jag alltid].
MAIN CLAUSE + SUBCLAUSE: [Jag vet] varför [du alltid lyssnar].
In all the main clauses, the verb goes in second place.
In the subclauses, we always put the subject before the finite verb.
I too typed "Jag lyssnar därför hon talar" and got it wrong, but duolingo told me that it should be "Jag lyssnar för hon talar" - then when I came into the comments it shows me the translation "Jag lyssnar därför att hon pratar" .... which is confusing? Can someone help explain why there are different answers and help me understand what they mean? Tack!
I guess this is probably a moderator question.
So, when translating the above, I hovered my mouse over "because" and a little list of options/suggestions/correct answer(s) appeared. At the top of the list was "därför att," next was "därför" and last was "eftersom." It seems that the list doesn't present options in order of preference, though, if "därför" would be translated as 'therefore,' because that wouldn't work in this sentence.
Does the list just represent all options* to translate the word 'because,' regardless of context?
*all options within the Duolingo-verse
Yes, the hints are set coursewide and hence do not necessarily apply to individual sentences. The order in which they appear is based only on the total number of accepted translations in which they feature, I believe. It makes sense, because it would be logistically unfeasible to set hints for every single sentence - but Duolingo could make that a bit clearer.