"The guy cooked for his new boyfriend."
Translation:Killen lagade mat till sin nya pojkvän.
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It's attributive + determinate + singular + n-gender + masculine. The masculine form is optional, so you could just as well write hans nya pojkvän.
It goes like this:
en pojkvän – en ny pojkvän
pojkvännen – den nya/nye pojkvännen
pojkvänner – nya pojkvänner
pojkvännerna – de nya pojkvännerna
The attributive form means that it's used like the Y X (e.g. the red car)
The other form is called predicative, used when you say X is Y (e.g. the car is red) it's like this:
Pojkvännen är ny.
Pojkvännerna är nya.
Two singular examples were shown before the plural examples because one is definite and the other is indefinite, such as with "A new boyfriend" vs "The new boyfriend".
You can use either nya or nye and you can confirm they are definite here (click to expand the purple box):
I'm pretty sure it's because "pojkvän" is in the Swedish definite article. It is HIS boyfriend. Any adjective where you have the noun in the definite article will have an a added to the ending.
So for example:
A blue boat - En blå båt (Indefinite article)
The blue boat - Den blåa båten (Definite article)
A tasty apple - Ett gott äpple (Indefinite article)
That tasty apple - Det där goda äpplet (Definite article)
A new boyfriend - En ny pojkvän ( Indefinite article)
His new boyfriend - Hans nya pojkvän (Definite article)
I don't know if you understood that, but hopefully you did. Good luck with your Swedish!
Definite is when your referring to a special item or person. Indefinite is when it could be any item or person. In Swedish it is called "bestämd form" (definite article) and "obestämd form" (indefinite article) which directly translates as decided and undecided form, which really makes sense in the meaning.
Example of indefinite could be "a chair". That could be any chair, it is not decided which chair it is, it is just "a chair".
Example for definite in this case is "that chair". You have decided what chair it is. It is that chair. It cannot be any other chair.
Another example of definite article could be "his boyfriend". This is definite because it is decided which boyfriend it is; it is "his".
In Swedish when a noun described with an adjective is in the definite article you add an a at the end of the adjective.
I might be too late, haha. Anyway, I hoped this helped. Good luck!
You can say "åt" in this sentence and it would still be correct.
I think the reason we don't say "för" here is because he's giving his boyfriend something - giving something "to" him. We don't use "för" in gift coherences at all. It's always "till" or "åt". In some cases "åt" doesn't sound as natural as "till" though, not in this case though. I don't know exactly why that is, so to always be sure I would just advice you to always use "till" unless someone else can explain it.
Those are really two separate questions.
Shouldnt it be the guy cooked for for his new boyfriend?
You accidentally wrote "for for", so you had one "for" too many.
Why is is wrong without 'mat'?
Just laga in Swedish means "fix". So our verb for "cook", which is laga mat, is literally "fix food". Hence, you cannot remove the mat since it's required for the meaning. English doesn't have that requirement, though, so it should be just "cook" in English and not "cook food".
I'm glad to know that about this sentence. I was only learning Swedish to help my syskonbarn who wanted to learn it. But, if hen lost interest, I thought I might not continue learning. But, now I've decided to go ahead with it regardless. ^_^
PS I have a pronunciation question, if you don't mind. I was looking at the word "lagade" and it got me thinking. In English, the vowels change their sound depending on where other vowels are placed. But, Japanese vowels don't affect each other. Which route does Swedish take?
[Edited, "noun" replaced with "vowel"]
I'm still quite not sure I understand what you mean, but maybe you are talking about diphtongs, like in the word noun where ou represents a sound like /a/ and /u/ melting together. Actually you have lots of diphtongs in English that are written in other ways, like in high where you have a sound like /a/ and /i/ melting together. The same happens in the word I for instance.
The short story about Swedish is that diphtongs are very characteristic for Scanian, the Swedish spoken in the southernmost part of the country, (there was recently a forum post about that), but in Standard Swedish, we don't have them. I hope this helps, if not, please give more examples about where English vowels influence each other.
Ah, I don't know what that's called, at least not off the top of my head. But it doesn't happen in Swedish. What does happen is that vowels become short when followed by double consonants (or, more correctly, that short vowels are written with double consonants after them). So ful (ugly) and full (full, drunk) sound differently and mean different things.
Edit: I should have taken the example glas (glass) and glass (ice cream) instead.
My (native) boyfriend does different sounds for some letters, so I actually have problems with a, o, and g. Regarding to http://folkets-lexikon.csc.kth.se/folkets/folkets.en.html kock = /kåk:/ and god = /go:d/ and it's how he makes me pronounce them. I don't know if the page is right in other words. He says that there are rules but he doesn't remember =(