"He spends a lot of time with his children."
Translation:Han tillbringar mycket tid med barnen.
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Swedish very often uses the definite form when English will use a possessive pronoun. If you say in English "I'm brushing my teeth", the best and most natural sounding Swedish translation is "Jag borstar tänderna". And the other way around, if you'd translate "Jag borstar tänderna" into English, the best translation would be "I'm brushing (or brush) my teeth", not the teeth. "Jag borstar mina tänder" is not wrong in Swedish, it's just not the idiomatic way of saying it. – In this particular case, both ways sound pretty natural, however I still think "Han tillbringar mycket tid med barnen" is a little better. You're right that the sentence does become a little ambiguous, but the first interpretation of it would still be that it's about his own kids.
Yes, but it doesn't mean the same: if you say sina barn, it is his own children. If you say hans barn, it's some other male's children.
If you say barnen, the standard interpretation will be that it is his own children. But it may also be some other group of children known from context. E.g. if he works in a daycare center.