"Ich bin kaputt."
Translation:I am exhausted.
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Ich bin kaputt
Speaking as a northerner, the British English figurative equivalent would be "I'm knackered" or "I'm clapped out". The knacker or knacker man was the person who killed horses which are no longer fit for work. The "clap" is/was gonorrhea, so to be "clapped out" literally means to be dead of gonorrhea.
I'm not sure, if I got you really, but you can say "Er hat ein kaputtes Hirn" - He has a damaged brain or "Das hat ihn wirklich kaputt gemacht" if somebody has got an emotional shock and didn't recover. Or, "das hat mich wirklich kaputt gemacht". In this case I would always use the passive "gemacht", not only "Ich bin kaputt".
That would be true only with an article: "I am A deadbeat". "I'm beat" and "I'm dead tired" are both common expressions, and "I'm dead beat" merely combines the two. In conversation, it's even clearer, as "deadbeat" has the stress on the first syllable, while "dead beat" would stress both or just the last.
Supper is a well-known alternative to dinner, although less used on the west coast. Bum is a well-known British expression. Some New Englanders do use some British words and some Canadians have brought more to the US. I have heard both and I am from California.
It doesn't always work to combine two well-known expressions. I will, however, defer to your wisdom. It still brings to mind a father who skipped out on his kids, but if you're comfortable with it, you're welcome to use it.
"Ich bin tot" = "I am dead" but I doubt anyone is going to be speaking much, let alone defining their status of living, if they are actually deceased.
"Ich bin Kaputt" = "I am broken" as in broken down, worn out, fagged, knackered etc. "Ich kann nicht mehr" = "I can not [go on any]more" would be a sentence to use along with this I guess?