Weather = tempo/clima. Climate = =clima. We use "clima" as in "como está o clima (weather)hoje?" but thats not very often. For the weater at that moment or a short period we normally use "tempo" but you may hear both.
Past tense is acceptable in this tense isn't it? We speak about the climate We spoke about the climate?
"falamos" in both cases?
'We "spoken" about the climate' is not correct English. Are you sure the correct translation shouldn't be "We spoke about the climate"?