A way to learn the verb forms?
Ex. lee; lees; leo; leemos; and leen? I couldn't remember them just with the practice and redoing the lesson.
Leo, lees, lee, leemos, leen, leen.
Well, you should find somewhere the rules of conjugations, and put some effort to understand it. Redoing lessons is not enough if you want to learn grammar well.
Learning the different forms is one of the hardest parts of Spanish. What I do,and it really helps me, is I go through the different verbs separately. I just go through and conjugate them on their own without the verbs being in a sentence. After a while you see the patterns and conjugating becomes much easier. There might be other methods but this way has helped me the most. I use memrise for this. There are some really great courses that people have made to help you with the different conjugations. Other people use different websites, I've heard people talk about anki flash cards, flash cards have never been my thing though so I can't really comment on that.
This course cleared up Spanish verb conjugations for me:
Let me start by giving you the map:
A verb in the purest form (without a noun or subject pronoun to perform the action) is called an infinitive. The infinitives in English are characterized by the prefix “to” + “verb form”, the Spanish infinitives are identified by the “r” ending.
Example: estudiar (to study), comer (to eat), dormir (to sleep)
Sometimes you’ll hear people call the -ar ending the “first conjunction”, the -er ending the “second conjunction”, and the -ir ending the “third conjunction”.
In Spanish, there are three moods: indicative, imperative, and subjunctive:
- Indicative Mood (objective)
- Subjunctive Mood (subjective)
- Imperative Mood (commands)
The indicative mood conveys something as factual or objective. “Yo hablo español” (I speak Spanish) or “Voy a Perú” (I’m going to Peru).
The imperative mood is often a command. For example: “¡Hazlo!” (Do it!).
The subjunctive mood is used to express everything except certainty and objectivity…like doubt, uncertainty, and subjectivity. For example: “Dudo que yo vaya a Perú” (I doubt that I am going to Peru).
Actions (verbs) can be expressed either in the present, past, future, or conditional tenses. They appear in either simple or compound forms. Verbs that do not require changes in their stems are considered regular. Verbs requiring spelling or stem changes are considered irregular.
The indicative mood has a simple and a compound version of the present tense. The simple present is the same as in English. For example: “Yo hablo español” (I speak Spanish) or “También hablo inglés.” (I also speak English). A compound version of the present tense is known as the present perfect. The present perfect tense is formed by using the present tense of the auxiliary verb haber + the appropriate verb’s past participle (regular or irregular form). Example: “He estudiado la lección” (I have studied the lesson).
There are four versions of the past tense in the indicative mood. There are two simple past tenses, the preterite tense that is used for actions in the past that are seen as completed, and an imperfect tense that is used for actions in the past that are not seen as completed.
There are also two compound past tenses in the indicative mood. They are preterite perfect, and pluperfect. Since the preterite perfect is not used in spoken language and rarely used in writing, I will ignore it. Pluperfect, often called the “past perfect”, is formed by using the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb haber (conjugated in the imperfect indicative) + past participle (regular or irregular form). Example: “Había estudiado la lección” (I/He/She had studied the lesson).
There are two versions of the future tense in the indicative mood. They are future and future perfect. The future tense corresponds to the English “will” or “shall”, and the verb is in a simple conjugated form, in a regular or irregular manner. Example: “Yo hablaré” (I will speak). The future may also use a conjugated form of “to go” (ir), plus an “a” and the infinitive of another verb. Example: “Yo voy a hablar” (I am going to speak).
The future perfect is formed by using the future tense of the auxiliary verb haber + past participle (regular or irregular form). Example: “Habré estudiado la lección” (I will have studied the lesson).
Indicative mood summary: We have covered eight verb tenses consisting of two future, two present, and four past tenses.
The subjunctive mood has four verb tenses. As mentioned earlier, subjunctive mood is used to express everything except certainty and objectivity…like doubt, uncertainty, and subjectivity. There are many clauses that are used to make the mood subjunctive. You will find a long list of these clauses, here:
There are three requirements that must be met for the subjunctive to be needed:
2 different subjects
a relative pronoun (“que”, “como”, “cual”, “donde”, or “quien”)
2 different verbs – the first will always be in the indicative and the second will always be in the subjunctive. The first verb will signal that the second verb needs to be in the subjunctive by the very nature of that first verb and the context it’s used in (it expresses emotion, doubt, etc.).
There is a much shorter list of clauses found on the link above, that do not trigger uncertainty, Example: “no dudar que …” (to not doubt that …), so it is important to realize that a clause does not automatically trigger a subjunctive. Doubt and uncertainly does.
The present of the subjunctive mood is equivalent to the English auxiliary verb “may”. Remove the -o from the singular first-person indicative form and add the appropriate ending: -e, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, en. Example: “hable” (I speak)
The imperfect of the subjunctive mood, is used to express the same subjectivity as the present subjunctive, but in the past. Remove the -on from the third-person indicative plural preterite form and add the appropriate ending: -a, -as, -a, -amos, -ais, an. Example: “Quería que lo hicieras” (I wanted you to do it).
The present perfect of the subjunctive mood is formed by taking the present subjunctive form of haber (which is irregular) and following it with the past participle. Example: “haya hablado” (I have spoken, I spoke).
The pluperfect of the subjunctive mood, is formed by taking the past subjunctive form of haber and following it with the past participle. Example: “hubiera hablado” (I had spoken, I spoke).
Subjunctive mood summary: We have covered four verb tenses consisting of two present, and two past tenses.
Our final two tenses are conditional. One is simple (I would….) and one is compound (I would have….). They are “conditional” because a condition has to be apparent, whether stated or not. The tense is used when an action is being based on “any conditions”. That is: Whenever there is an “if” involved …The conditional tense always includes the meaning of “would” attached to the verb.
The simple conditional tense is used to express what “would” happen in the future. It is more of a possibility, or hypothetical situation, than the future tense. The formation is very similar to that of the simple future tense in that one set of endings is added to the infinitive to create a new tense and the irregular stems are the same as those in the future tense: ía, ías, ía, íamos, íais, ían.
The conditional perfect tense use a form of “to have” (see above) along with the past participle of the verb or action stated. Example: “Yo habría acabado” (I would have finished).
Other good resources:
If you google there are lots of spreadsheets and such to show you. Wordreference.com is my favorite dictionary for Spanish and French, and on any verb you can hit "conjugator" and it shows you all possible forms of the verb (don't be too scared by the massive page you'll see for each verb).
As for 'leer', it's yo leo, tú lees, él/ella/Usted lee, nosotros leemos, and ellos/ellas/Ustedes leen. Spanish just likes to drop the pronoun of the sentence.
Sometimes good ol' repetitive practice can help. There are applications that you can use to help build your verb conjugations. I remember a KDE application called kverbos. I do sometimes use this method, while a voice is echoing in my head "no pain no gain".
As an alternative, if that sounds too boring and rigid (and it is), is to get lots of samples sentences using the different verb conjugations and add them to SRS, such as Anki. The sentences should NOT be long a complicated. This method works very well for me.
(El,Ella) lee hace quiere viste come abre duerme destruye grita cae nada va llega
(Ellos) leen hacen quieren visten comen abren duermen destruyen gritan caen nadan van llegan
(Tu) lees haces quieres vistes comes abres duermes abres destruyes gritas caes nadas vas llegas
(Nosotros) leemos hacemos queremos vestimos comemos abrimos dormimos destruyo gritamos caemos nadamos vamos llegamos
(Yo) leo hago quiero visto como abro duermo destruyo grito caigo nado voy llego