"I hope that a Swedish author receives the Nobel Prize in literature."
Translation:Jag hoppas att en svensk författare får Nobelpriset i litteratur.
It did happen three years ago :).
"Jag hoppar" means "I jump" :).
att hoppa - jag hoppar - jag hoppade - jag har hoppat (to jump - I jump - I jumped - I have jumped)
att hoppas - jag hoppas - jag hoppades - jag har hoppats (to hope - I hope - I hoped - I have hoped)
Hoppas is a so-called deponent verb https://www.duolingo.com/comment/6094592.
"that" is an incredibly versatile word in English - it can be a pronoun, an adverb, a determiner, a conjunction, or very rarely even a noun. I'll list the reasonably common ones, but please bear with me if I miss some.
- Conjunction introducing a subordinate clause: Swedish uses att. Examples: "I hope that..." = Jag hoppas att...; "... so much, that..." = ... så mycket, att...
- Conjunction introducing a subordinate clause that affects an adverb: Swedish uses vad (usually) or för att (especially with "would"). Examples: "Not that I know" = Inte vad jag vet; "Not that I would know_ = Inte för att jag vet.
- Pronoun (regular): Swedish uses det. Examples: "Enough about that" = Nog om det; "He didn't return after that" = Han kom inte tillbaka efter det
- Pronoun (relative): Swedish uses som. Examples "The country that she visited" = Landet som hon besökte. Note that both languages frequently may skip the pronoun.
- Adverb: Swedish uses så. Example: "The walls were that thin" = Väggarna var så tunna
Edit: Sorry that got a bit messy. It's a lot of information, with quite limited formatting capabilities.