It's weird...for some reason, "where is the stop?" sounds wrong in English. I feel like it needs some extra qualification. "Where is the next stop?" "Where is your stop?" "When do we get to the stop?" But, for some bizarre reason, "Where is the stop?" just sounds like an incomplete thought.
"A station" is "en station" in Swedish. Those are larger, typically have a house with a ticket office, while "hållplats" is typically just a sign and perhaps a small shelter against rain. Also station is usually for trains and subway, while hållplats is usually for busses and trams. I think it is the same distinction in English and Swedish.