"Jag har sockret."
Translation:I have the sugar.
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It depends on which form the word originally is like ett hus / en mus -> when the ett/ en is before the word it is a/ an like in English. When that article is put to the end of the word, the word is in definite form, similar to the -> huset/ the house musen/ the mouse. And these are things you just have to know. In some words it changes to other comibinations - like blomman (the flower).
It's usually fine but I'm afraid it's not always the case. I've done some ~70 re-recordings which you'll find among comments now and then, but it's hard to say how much is wrong as a general number.
Again, though, it's mostly fine. You'll learn much more from having it on than you'll gain by turning it off. :)
Socker is an "ett-ord". It's generally uncountable but as in English you can say ett socker (a sugar) to mean a type of sugar.
Vi gör ett socker av finaste kvalitet - We make a sugar of the finest quality.
Otherwise you have to specify the unit to speak of sugar in the definitive: En kopp socker (a cup of sugar), ett sockerkorn (a grain of sugar), en tesked socker (a teaspoon of sugar), and so on.
You can of course also speak of det sockret - that sugar.